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Accelerating 3-D GPU-based Motion Tracking for Ultrasound Strain Elastography Using Sum-Tables: Analysis and Initial Results

1
School of Computer Science, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9101991
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging Techniques)
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Abstract

Now, with the availability of 3-D ultrasound data, a lot of research efforts are being devoted to developing 3-D ultrasound strain elastography (USE) systems. Because 3-D motion tracking, a core component in any 3-D USE system, is computationally intensive, a lot of efforts are under way to accelerate 3-D motion tracking. In the literature, the concept of Sum-Table has been used in a serial computing environment to reduce the burden of computing signal correlation, which is the single most computationally intensive component in 3-D motion tracking. In this study, parallel programming using graphics processing units (GPU) is used in conjunction with the concept of Sum-Table to improve the computational efficiency of 3-D motion tracking. To our knowledge, sum-tables have not been used in a GPU environment for 3-D motion tracking. Our main objective here is to investigate the feasibility of using sum-table-based normalized correlation coefficient (ST-NCC) method for the above-mentioned GPU-accelerated 3-D USE. More specifically, two different implementations of ST-NCC methods proposed by Lewis et al. and Luo-Konofagou are compared against each other. During the performance comparison, the conventional method for calculating the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) was used as the baseline. All three methods were implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA; Version 9.0, Nvidia Inc., CA, USA) and tested on a professional GeForce GTX TITAN X card (Nvidia Inc., CA, USA). Using 3-D ultrasound data acquired during a tissue-mimicking phantom experiment, both displacement tracking accuracy and computational efficiency were evaluated for the above-mentioned three different methods. Based on data investigated, we found that under the GPU platform, Lou-Konofaguo method can still improve the computational efficiency (17–46%), as compared to the classic NCC method implemented into the same GPU platform. However, the Lewis method does not improve the computational efficiency in some configuration or improves the computational efficiency at a lower rate (7–23%) under the GPU parallel computing environment. Comparable displacement tracking accuracy was obtained by both methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: motion tracking; ultrasound elastography; graphics processing unit; correlation; sum-table; block-matching motion tracking; ultrasound elastography; graphics processing unit; correlation; sum-table; block-matching
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, B.; Luo, S.; Xu, Z.; Jiang, J. Accelerating 3-D GPU-based Motion Tracking for Ultrasound Strain Elastography Using Sum-Tables: Analysis and Initial Results. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1991.

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