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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040536

Evaluation of the Toxin-to-Protein Binding Rates during Hemodialysis Using Sorbent-Loaded Mixed-Matrix Membranes

1
Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Stadiou, Platani, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering TE, TEI of Western Greece, GR-26334 Patras, Greece
4
(Bio)artificial Organs group, Department of Biomaterials Science and Technology, TechMed Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract

The transport and reaction phenomena that take place in multi-layered mixed-matrix membranes with activated carbon (AC) sorbents that are expected to improve extra-corporeal blood purification, are studied at the macroscopic scale. A model was developed that aims at the description of the removal efficiency of harmful uremic toxins from the blood in the presence of carbon-adsorptive particles and produces results that are aligned with the experimental data. The importance of the generally unknown kinetic rate constants of the association of toxins to albumin is investigated through sensitivity analysis. Matching with further experimental data allowed the extraction of vital kinetic rate constants for key uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS). Moreover, the effects of the plasma composition, as well as of the membrane loading with activated carbon, on the total removal of the protein-bound toxins are quantified and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemodialysis; mixed-matrix membranes; protein-bound uremic toxins; computer simulation model; binding kinetics; adsorption/desorption Langmuir isotherms hemodialysis; mixed-matrix membranes; protein-bound uremic toxins; computer simulation model; binding kinetics; adsorption/desorption Langmuir isotherms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Stiapis, C.S.; Skouras, E.D.; Pavlenko, D.; Stamatialis, D.; Burganos, V.N. Evaluation of the Toxin-to-Protein Binding Rates during Hemodialysis Using Sorbent-Loaded Mixed-Matrix Membranes. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 536.

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