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Review

The Effect of Removable Orthodontic Appliances on Oral Microbiota: A Systematic Review

1
Unit of Orthodontics, Division of Dentistry IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
2
Unit of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy
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Unit of Dentistry, Research Center for Oral Pathology and Implantology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
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Experimental Hematology Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milano, Italy
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Experimental Hematology Unit, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy
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Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, 20132 Milano, Italy
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Private Practice Milano, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Testarelli
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062881
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
Background (1): Removable orthodontic appliances may favor plaque accumulation and oral microbe colonization. This might be associated with intraoral adverse effects on enamel or periodontal tissues. The proposed systematic review was carried out to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the microbiological changes occurring during orthodontic therapy with removable orthodontic appliances. Methods (2): PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid Medline, and Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source were searched. The research included every article published up to January 2020. The Preferred Reporting Items for Reporting Systematic reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) protocol and the “Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care Criteria for Grading Assessed Studies” (SBU) method were adopted to conduct this systematic review. Results (3): The current study has a moderate evidence, demonstrating that removable appliances do influence the oral microbiota. Significant alterations occur just 15 days after the beginning of therapy, independently from the type of appliance. Furthermore, the levels of oral pathogens decrease significantly or even returned to pre-treatment levels several months later the therapy end. Conclusions (4): This review suggests that orthodontic treatment with removable appliances induces changes to oral microflora, but these alterations might not be permanent. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral microbiology; removable orthodontic appliances; oral microflora changes; caries bacteria oral microbiology; removable orthodontic appliances; oral microflora changes; caries bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lucchese, A.; Bonini, C.; Noviello, M.; Lupo Stanghellini, M.T.; Greco, R.; Peccatori, J.; Biella, A.; Tassi, E.; Beretta, V.; Ciceri, F.; Marcolina, M.; Gherlone, E.; Manuelli, M. The Effect of Removable Orthodontic Appliances on Oral Microbiota: A Systematic Review. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2881. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062881

AMA Style

Lucchese A, Bonini C, Noviello M, Lupo Stanghellini MT, Greco R, Peccatori J, Biella A, Tassi E, Beretta V, Ciceri F, Marcolina M, Gherlone E, Manuelli M. The Effect of Removable Orthodontic Appliances on Oral Microbiota: A Systematic Review. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(6):2881. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062881

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lucchese, Alessandra, Chiara Bonini, Maddalena Noviello, Maria T. Lupo Stanghellini, Raffaella Greco, Jacopo Peccatori, Antonella Biella, Elena Tassi, Valeria Beretta, Fabio Ciceri, Marta Marcolina, Enrico Gherlone, and Maurizio Manuelli. 2021. "The Effect of Removable Orthodontic Appliances on Oral Microbiota: A Systematic Review" Applied Sciences 11, no. 6: 2881. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062881

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