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Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review

Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz, 2829-511 Monte de Caparica, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Chrcanovic
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8070;
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
Purpose: Probiotics may exclude or antagonize oral pathogens and be useful to prevent oral dysbiosis and treat oral diseases. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits of probiotics in oral health and disease, and in dental practice; Methods: Primary articles published between January 2012 and 30 December 2020 with full text available were searched in PubMed,, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, B-on, and SciELO; Results: The electronic search identified 361 references of which 91 (25.2%) met all the inclusion criteria. In total, data from 5374 participants with gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, caries, orthodontic conditions, halitosis, or oral conditions associated with chemo-radiotherapy were included. Despite major inconsistencies between clinical trials, probiotics have been found to contribute to reduce S. mutans counts (L. paracasei SD1), reduce probing depth in chronic periodontitis (B. animalis subsp. lactis DN-173010 with L. reuteri), reduce levels of volatile sulfur compounds and halitosis (L. salivarius WB21), treat oral mucositis and improve the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer chemo-radiotherapy (L. brevis CD2). Combinations of probiotic bacteria tend to lead to higher clinical efficacy than any individual probiotic agent; Conclusion: Oral probiotics influence favorably the oral microbiota and provide benefits to the oral ecosystem in periodontal diseases, cariology, halitosis, orthodontics and management of oral mucositis resulting from cancer treatment. However, the use of probiotics in dental practice or in self-management preventive strategies requires additional well controlled clinical trials to determine the most effective probiotic combinations, the most appropriate probiotic vehicle, and the frequency of administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; oral microbiota; oral health; oral diseases; dental practice probiotics; oral microbiota; oral health; oral diseases; dental practice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saïz, P.; Taveira, N.; Alves, R. Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8070.

AMA Style

Saïz P, Taveira N, Alves R. Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(17):8070.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saïz, Perrine, Nuno Taveira, and Ricardo Alves. 2021. "Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review" Applied Sciences 11, no. 17: 8070.

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