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Remediation of Copper Contaminated Soils Using Water Containing Hydrogen Nanobubbles

by Dongchan Kim 1 and Junggeun Han 2,*
Candidate Ph.D Department of Civil Engineering Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Design and Study, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2185;
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environmental Solutions)
This basic research study was undertaken to use ecofriendly nanobubbles that can improve the electrokinetic remediation of copper-contaminated soil, as well as to determine that remediation efficiency. The nanobubbles were generated by using pressurized hydrogen gas, and the quantity of hydrogen gas bubble that remained over 14 days was measured. The generated nanobubbles were used as an enhancer to remove a heavy metal on contaminated soil, and their applicability was confirmed. A batch test was used to compare the remediation effects of nanobubbles and distilled water on copper-contaminated soil. The results proved that the nanobubbles are a proper desorption agent for copper-contaminated sand and clay specimens. The solid–liquid ratio and the contact time for desorption of the sand and clay were then respectively determined. A large amount of effluent was obtained from electrokinetic remediation of the sand sample after applying the nanobubbles as an enhancer. The remediation efficiency demonstrated with sand proved to be higher than that for clay. This greater efficiency was attributed to a wider specific surface area, demonstrating the potential use of the nanobubbles as an enhancer for soil contaminated by copper with a large amount of effluent outflow. It was also assumed to be affected by the moving capability of the nanobubbles in the soil layer. Thus, the nanobubbled water can be used to improve the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. An ecofriendly enhancer for electrokinetic remediation with a relatively large void ratio and fast flowrate was confirmed by the nanobubbles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanobubbles; contaminated soil; electrokinetic; in situ; remediation nanobubbles; contaminated soil; electrokinetic; in situ; remediation
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Kim, D.; Han, J. Remediation of Copper Contaminated Soils Using Water Containing Hydrogen Nanobubbles. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2185.

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