# Solving Partial Differential Equations Using Deep Learning and Physical Constraints

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Artificial Neural Networks

#### 2.2. Physics-Informed Neural Networks

## 3. Experiments and Results

#### 3.1. Wave Equation

#### 3.2. KdV-Burgers Equation

#### 3.3. Two-Soliton Solution of the Korteweg-De Vries Equation

## 4. Discussions

- (1)
- The most important task of physics-informed neural networks is to introduce a reasonable regularization of physical information. The use of physical information allows neural networks to better learn the solutions of partial differential equations from fewer observations. In this study, the physical information regularization is implemented through the automatic differentiation of the TensorFlow framework, which may not be applicable in many practical problems. Therefore, we need to develop more general differential methods and expand more methods for introducing physical information so that physics-informed neural networks can be better applied to real-world problems.
- (2)
- Regularization has an important role in physics-informed neural networks. Similar to the previous related studies, the regularization in this study takes the form of the L2 norm. However, when considering the advantages of different norms, such as the ability of L1 norm to resist anomalous data interference, in the next study, we will adopt different forms of regularization of physical information such as L1 norm, to further improve the theory and methods related to physics-informed neural networks.
- (3)
- In this study, the training data used to train the physics-informed neural network are randomly selected in the space-time domain, thus the physics-informed neural network does not need to consider the discretization of partial differential equations and can learn the solutions of partial differential equations from a small amount of data. It is well known that popular computational fluid dynamics methods require consideration of the discretization of equations, such as finite difference methods. In practice, many engineering applications also need to consider the discretization of partial differential equations, for example, various numerical weather prediction models have made discretization schemes as an important part of their research. Physics-informed neural networks are well suited to solve this problem and, thus, this approach may have important implications for the development of computational fluid dynamics and even scientific computing.
- (4)
- Although the method used in this paper has many advantages, such as not having to consider the discretization of PDEs. However, the method also faces many problems, such as the neural network for solving PDEs relies heavily on training data, which often requires more training time when the quality of the training data is poor. Therefore, it is also important to investigate how to construct high-quality training datasets to reduce the training time.
- (5)
- In this study, we focus on solving PDEs by training physics-informed neural networks, which is a supervised learning task. Currently, several researchers have used unlabeled data to train physics-constrained deep learning models for high-dimensional problems and have quantified the uncertainty of the predictions [68]. This inspires us to further improve our neural network, so that it can be trained using unlabeled data and give a probabilistic interpretation of the prediction results [69]. Besides, this paper studies low-dimensional problems, whereas, for high-dimensional problems, model reduction [70] is also an important issue to consider when constructing a neural network model.
- (6)
- In this paper, we study one-dimensional partial differential equations, but the method can be applied to multi-dimensional problems. Currently, we are attempting to apply the method to the simulation of three-dimensional atmospheric equations for improving existing numerical weather prediction models. Besides, in the field of engineering, complex PDE systems of field coupled nature, as in Fluid-Structure Interaction, are of great research value and they are widely used in the aerospace industry, nuclear engineering, etc. [71], so we will also study such complex PDEs in the future.
- (7)
- So far, there have been many promising applications of neural networks in computational engineering. For example, one very interesting work is that neural networks have been used to construct constitutive laws as a surrogate model replacing the two-scale computational approaches [72,73]. These valuable works will guide us in further exploring the applications of neural networks in scientific computing.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

PDEs | Partial Differential Equations |

ANN | Artificial Neural Networks |

FNN | Feedforward Neural Network |

PINN | Physics Informed Neural Network |

FEM | Finite Element Method |

FDM | Finite Difference Method |

FVM | Finite Volume Method |

AD | Automatic Differentiation |

SGD | Stochastic Gradient Descent |

Adam | Adaptive Moment Estimation |

L-BFGS | Limited-memory BFGS |

KdV equation | Korteweg-de Vries equation |

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**Figure 1.**A structural diagram of a feedforward neural network (FNN), which consists of an input layer, one or more hidden layers, and an output layer, each containing one or more artificial neurons.

**Figure 2.**The schematic of physics-informed neural network (PINN) for solving partial differential equations.

**Figure 4.**Comparison of the prediction given by physics-informed neural networks with the exact solution.

**Figure 5.**Solution of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)–Burgers equation given by physics-informed neural networks.

**Figure 6.**Comparison of the prediction given by physics-informed neural networks with the exact solution.

**Figure 8.**Comparison of the prediction given by physics-informed neural networks with the exact solution.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Guo, Y.; Cao, X.; Liu, B.; Gao, M.
Solving Partial Differential Equations Using Deep Learning and Physical Constraints. *Appl. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 5917.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175917

**AMA Style**

Guo Y, Cao X, Liu B, Gao M.
Solving Partial Differential Equations Using Deep Learning and Physical Constraints. *Applied Sciences*. 2020; 10(17):5917.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175917

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Guo, Yanan, Xiaoqun Cao, Bainian Liu, and Mei Gao.
2020. "Solving Partial Differential Equations Using Deep Learning and Physical Constraints" *Applied Sciences* 10, no. 17: 5917.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175917