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Open AccessArticle

Fingerprint Classification through Standard and Weighted Extreme Learning Machines

1
Department of Computer Science and Industry, Faculty of Engineering Science, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3480112, Chile
2
Laboratory of Technological Research in Pattern Recognition (LITRP), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3480112, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4125; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124125
Received: 23 May 2020 / Revised: 6 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
Fingerprint classification is a stage of biometric identification systems that aims to group fingerprints and reduce search times and computational complexity in the databases of fingerprints. The most recent works on this problem propose methods based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) by adopting fingerprint images as inputs. These networks have achieved high classification performances, but with a high computational cost in the network training process, even by using high-performance computing techniques. In this paper, we introduce a novel fingerprint classification approach based on feature extractor models, and basic and modified extreme learning machines (ELMs), being the first time that this approach is adopted. The weighted ELMs naturally address the problem of unbalanced data, such as fingerprint databases. Some of the best and most recent extractors (Capelli02, Hong08, and Liu10), which are based on the most relevant visual characteristics of the fingerprint image, are considered. Considering the unbalanced classes for fingerprint identification schemes, we optimize the ELMs (standard, original weighted, and decay weighted) in terms of the geometric mean by estimating their hyper-parameters (regularization parameter, number of hidden neurons, and decay parameter). At the same time, the classic accuracy and penetration-rate metrics are computed for comparison purposes with the superior CNN-based methods reported in the literature. The experimental results show that weighted ELM with the presence of the golden-ratio in the weighted matrix (W-ELM2) overall outperforms the rest of the ELMs. The combination of the Hong08 extractor and W-ELM2 competes with CNNs in terms of the fingerprint classification efficacy, but the ELMs-based methods have been demonstrated their extremely fast training speeds in any context. View Full-Text
Keywords: fingerprint classification; fingerprint features; extreme learning machine; unbalanced dataset fingerprint classification; fingerprint features; extreme learning machine; unbalanced dataset
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Zabala-Blanco, D.; Mora, M.; Barrientos, R.J.; Hernández-García, R.; Naranjo-Torres, J. Fingerprint Classification through Standard and Weighted Extreme Learning Machines. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4125.

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