Next Article in Journal
Generating Negative Air Ions in Construction Waterscapes at a Garden Scale
Next Article in Special Issue
Nature Conservation and Nature-Based Tourism: A Paradox?
Previous Article in Journal
Chlorophyll in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Correlations with Environmental Factors and Trends
Previous Article in Special Issue
Perceptions of Multiple Stakeholders about Environmental Issues at a Nature-Based Tourism Destination: The Case of Yakushima Island, Japan
Open AccessArticle

Image Analysis to Monitor Experimental Trampling and Vegetation Recovery in Icelandic Plant Communities

1
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, 22362 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Geography and Tourism, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(9), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6090099
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nature-Based Tourism)
With growing tourism in natural areas, monitoring recreational impacts is becoming increasingly important. This paper aims to evaluate how different trampling intensities affect some common Icelandic plant communities by using digital photographs to analyze and quantify vegetation in experimental plots and to monitor vegetation recovery rates over a consecutive three-year period. Additionally, it seeks to evaluate the use of image analysis for monitoring recreational impact in natural areas. Experimental trampling was conducted in two different sites representing the lowlands and the highlands in 2014, and the experimental plots were revisited in 2015, 2016, and 2017. The results show that moss has the highest sensitivity to trampling, and furthermore has a slow recovery rate. Moss-heaths in the highlands also show higher sensitivity and slower recovery rates than moss-heaths in the lowlands, and grasslands show the highest resistance to trampling. Both methods tested, i.e., Green Chromatic Coordinate (GCC) and Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), showed significant correlation with the trampling impact. Using image analysis to quantify the status and define limits of use will likely be a valuable and vital element in managing recreational areas. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will add a robust way to collect photographic data that can be processed into vegetation parameters to monitor recreational impacts in natural areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: monitoring; recreational trampling; experimental plots; nature-based tourism; image analysis; green chromatic coordinate (GCC); Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) monitoring; recreational trampling; experimental plots; nature-based tourism; image analysis; green chromatic coordinate (GCC); Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Runnström, M.C.; Ólafsdóttir, R.; Blanke, J.; Berlin, B. Image Analysis to Monitor Experimental Trampling and Vegetation Recovery in Icelandic Plant Communities. Environments 2019, 6, 99.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop