Next Article in Journal
Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Framework of Environmental Impact Assessment for Urban Systems: Framework and Case Study of Masdar City, Abu Dhabi
Next Article in Special Issue
Preface: Special Issue on Environmental Impact of Nature-Based Tourism
Previous Article in Journal
Tall Wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum): Flood Resilience, Growth Response to Sea Water Immersion, and Its Capacity for Erosion and Flooding Control of Coastal Areas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Image Analysis to Monitor Experimental Trampling and Vegetation Recovery in Icelandic Plant Communities
Open AccessReview

Nature Conservation and Nature-Based Tourism: A Paradox?

1
Australian Centre for Culture, Environment, Society and Space, School of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
School of Biological Earth & Environmental Sciences, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
3
Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Parklands Drive, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(9), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6090104
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 3 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nature-Based Tourism)
Throughout the world, areas have been reserved for their exceptional environmental values, such as high biodiversity. Financial, political and community support for these protected areas is often dependent on visitation by nature-based tourists. This visitation inevitably creates environmental impacts, such as the construction and maintenance of roads, tracks and trails; trampling of vegetation and erosion of soils; and propagation of disturbance of resilient species, such as weeds. This creates tension between the conservation of environmental values and visitation. This review examines some of the main features of environmental impacts by nature-based tourists through a discussion of observational and manipulative studies. It explores the disturbance context and unravels the management implications of detecting impacts and understanding their causes. Regulation of access to visitor areas is a typical management response, qualified by the mode of access (e.g., vehicular, ambulatory). Managing access and associated impacts are reviewed in relation to roads, tracks and trails; wildlife viewing; and accommodations. Responses to visitor impacts, such as environmental education and sustainable tour experiences are explored. The review concludes with ten recommendations for further research in order to better resolve the tension between nature conservation and nature-based tourism. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based tourism; recreation; conservation; environmental impacts; protected areas; review nature-based tourism; recreation; conservation; environmental impacts; protected areas; review
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wolf, I.D.; Croft, D.B.; Green, R.J. Nature Conservation and Nature-Based Tourism: A Paradox? Environments 2019, 6, 104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop