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Behav. Sci., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2012) – 3 articles , Pages 1-49

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Article
Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms
Behav. Sci. 2012, 2(1), 38-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs2010038 - 15 Mar 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3651
Abstract
Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47) had significantly faster, [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47) had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54). Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility) or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects. Full article
Article
Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats
Behav. Sci. 2012, 2(1), 23-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs2010023 - 01 Mar 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3868
Abstract
Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in [...] Read more.
Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10) procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine) test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner. Full article
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Article
Toward a Brighter Future for Psychology as an Observation Oriented Science
Behav. Sci. 2012, 2(1), 1-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs2010001 - 16 Jan 2012
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 8671
Abstract
Serious criticisms of psychology’s research practices and data analysis methods date back to at least the mid-1900s after the Galtonian school of thought had thoroughly triumphed over the Wundtian school. In the wake of Bem’s (2011) recent, highly publicized study on psi phenomena [...] Read more.
Serious criticisms of psychology’s research practices and data analysis methods date back to at least the mid-1900s after the Galtonian school of thought had thoroughly triumphed over the Wundtian school. In the wake of Bem’s (2011) recent, highly publicized study on psi phenomena in a prestigious journal, psychologists are again raising serious questions about their dominant research script. These concerns are echoed in the current paper, and Observation Oriented Modeling (OOM) is presented as an alternative approach toward data conceptualization and analysis for the social and life sciences. This approach is rooted in philosophical realism and an attitude toward data analysis centered around causality and common sense. Three example studies and accompanying data analyses are presented and discussed to demonstrate a number of OOM’s advantages over current researcher practices. Full article
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