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Effects of Fat Supplementation during Gestation on Reproductive Performance, Milk Composition of Sows and Intestinal Development of Their Offspring

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Animals 2019, 9(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040125
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Pig Nutrition)
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Simple Summary

Nutrition plays a major role in enhancing reproductive efficiency in pigs. Sows mobilize sufficient energy from their body tissue stores for fetal nutritional demands. Dietary fats are used in late gestation and/or lactation diets as sources of energy and essential fatty acids. Our results suggested that fat supplementation during gestation improved colostrum composition and plasma concentration of prolactin at farrowing, associated with altered intestinal morphology and innate immunity in newborn offspring.

Abstract

Various fats are used in swine diets as sources of energy and essential fatty acids. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fat supplementation during gestation on reproductive performance, milk composition of sows and intestinal development of their offspring. Fifty sows were randomly allocated into two groups receiving the control (CON) and high-fat diets (HF diet) during gestation. After farrowing, all sows received the same lactation diet and were fed ad libitum until weaning at day 20 of lactation. The results showed that being fed the HF diet did not markedly improve the performance of sows and their offspring. However, the HF diet increased (p < 0.05) the colostrum contents of protein and no-fat solids, and the plasma concentration of prolactin at farrowing. Moreover, piglets born of sows fed the HF diet had higher (p < 0.05) jejunal villous height, as well as deeper (p < 0.05) jejunal and colonic crypt depths compared with piglets born of sows fed the CON diet. In addition, piglets born of sows fed the HF diet had markedly increased (p < 0.05) mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in ileum compared with piglets born of sows fed the CON diet. These findings indicated that dietary fat supplementation during gestation did not markedly improve the performance of sows and their offspring, but improved colostrum quality and concentration of prolactin on the day of farrowing, associated with modifications of intestinal morphology and innate immunity of their offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil; colostrum; reproduction; intestine; sow; piglets oil; colostrum; reproduction; intestine; sow; piglets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Peng, X.; Yan, C.; Hu, L.; Liu, Y.; Xu, Q.; Wang, R.; Qin, L.; Wu, C.; Fang, Z.; Lin, Y.; Xu, S.; Feng, B.; Zhuo, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, D.; Che, L. Effects of Fat Supplementation during Gestation on Reproductive Performance, Milk Composition of Sows and Intestinal Development of Their Offspring. Animals 2019, 9, 125.

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