Currently, there are three classes of anthelmintics most commonly used in small ruminants: the benzimidazoles (BZs), macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and cholinergic agonists (especially levamisole; LEV). The widespread use of those products has led to the emergence of drug-resistant parasite strains which represents a serious threat to the livestock industry. In the present study, we describe for the first time a case of resistance to anthelmintics in goats in Romania. The study was carried out in 2021 in a dairy goat herd from the Transylvania region. Two types of diagnostic methods were used to confirm anthelmintic resistance (AR). First, the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), an in vivo AR diagnostic method, was used to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPM). The results of this test were analysed applying two different calculative methods that are used only in treated animals (without the control group). Furthermore, two in vitro methods were used: the egg hatch test (EHT) for the detection of resistance to BZs, and the larval development test (LDT) for detection of resistance to all three classes of anthelmintics. The results of FECRT indicate the resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) to EPM in both calculative methods (FECR1
= −88% and FECR2
= −202%). In addition, the results obtained for ivermectin aglycone (IVM-AG) in LDT also indicate resistance to drugs from MLs group, especially avermectins. Similarly, the results of in vitro methods (EHT and LDT) indicate resistance to BZs in this herd. LEV was the only drug that stopped the development of L3 larvae 100% (LDT). H. contortus
was the only nematode species found in coproculture after EPM treatment. Furthermore, H. contotus
L3 larvae was the only species found in the wells with the highest concentrations of thiabendazole (TBZ) and IVM-AG in LDT. This suggests that resistance to both BZs and MLs was present for that species.
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