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Article

First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats in Romania

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Mănăștur Str. 3-5, 400372 Cluj, Romania
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Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska Str. 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Mănăștur Str. 3-5, 400372 Cluj, Romania
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Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Mănăștur Str. 3-5, 400372 Cluj, Romania
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Institute of Parasitology Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Donato Traversa
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102761
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 18 September 2021 / Accepted: 19 September 2021 / Published: 22 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a serious threat to animal health and has a major economic impact worldwide due to production and financial losses. Currently, there are three classes of anthelmintics most commonly used in small ruminants: the benzimidazoles (BZs), macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and cholinergic agonists (especially levamisole; LEV). The widespread use of those products has led to the emergence of drug-resistant parasite strains. In the present study, we describe for the first time a case of resistance to anthelmintics in goats in Romania. Resistance was detected and confirmed for two chemical groups of anthelmintics (MLs and BZs) by in vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and in vitro methods: the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). Considering the increasing prevalence of AR in goat herds in Europe and around the globe, we believe that the findings of our study on AR in goats in Romania do not represent a singular event and could hence be just the noticeable part of a much wider issue.
Currently, there are three classes of anthelmintics most commonly used in small ruminants: the benzimidazoles (BZs), macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and cholinergic agonists (especially levamisole; LEV). The widespread use of those products has led to the emergence of drug-resistant parasite strains which represents a serious threat to the livestock industry. In the present study, we describe for the first time a case of resistance to anthelmintics in goats in Romania. The study was carried out in 2021 in a dairy goat herd from the Transylvania region. Two types of diagnostic methods were used to confirm anthelmintic resistance (AR). First, the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), an in vivo AR diagnostic method, was used to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPM). The results of this test were analysed applying two different calculative methods that are used only in treated animals (without the control group). Furthermore, two in vitro methods were used: the egg hatch test (EHT) for the detection of resistance to BZs, and the larval development test (LDT) for detection of resistance to all three classes of anthelmintics. The results of FECRT indicate the resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) to EPM in both calculative methods (FECR1 = −88% and FECR2 = −202%). In addition, the results obtained for ivermectin aglycone (IVM-AG) in LDT also indicate resistance to drugs from MLs group, especially avermectins. Similarly, the results of in vitro methods (EHT and LDT) indicate resistance to BZs in this herd. LEV was the only drug that stopped the development of L3 larvae 100% (LDT). H. contortus was the only nematode species found in coproculture after EPM treatment. Furthermore, H. contotus L3 larvae was the only species found in the wells with the highest concentrations of thiabendazole (TBZ) and IVM-AG in LDT. This suggests that resistance to both BZs and MLs was present for that species. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthelmintic resistance; goats; benzimidazoles; macrocyclic lactones anthelmintic resistance; goats; benzimidazoles; macrocyclic lactones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Potârniche, A.V.; Mickiewicz, M.; Olah, D.; Cerbu, C.; Spînu, M.; Hari, A.; Györke, A.; Moroz, A.; Czopowicz, M.; Várady, M.; Kaba, J. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats in Romania. Animals 2021, 11, 2761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102761

AMA Style

Potârniche AV, Mickiewicz M, Olah D, Cerbu C, Spînu M, Hari A, Györke A, Moroz A, Czopowicz M, Várady M, Kaba J. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats in Romania. Animals. 2021; 11(10):2761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Potârniche, Adrian Valentin, Marcin Mickiewicz, Diana Olah, Constantin Cerbu, Marina Spînu, Attila Hari, Adriana Györke, Agata Moroz, Michał Czopowicz, Marián Várady, and Jarosław Kaba. 2021. "First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats in Romania" Animals 11, no. 10: 2761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102761

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