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Article

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Farm and Exotic Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu, Sarawak Campus, Bintulu 97008, Sarawak, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
This study investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia. Meat samples from wet markets in various districts and diaphragm samples from abattoirs were analyzed using ELISA to check for T. gondii IgG antibodies. Furthermore, attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA from meat samples using the nested PCR technique. Twenty-five percent of the samples were positive for T. gondii antibodies, with the highest recorded in goat (55%), followed by sheep (35%) and cattle meat (9%). T. gondii DNA was not detected in any of the meat samples. Being the first report in Malaysia, the findings highlight the need for proper control in reducing exposure of ruminant meats to the parasite, especially those destined for human consumption.
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased from 51 wet markets in six districts in Klang Valley (Gombak, Klang, Kuala Lumpur, Hulu Langat, Petaling and Putrajaya). Meanwhile, a total of 200 diaphragm samples were collected from two government abattoirs located in Shah Alam and Banting, Selangor. All meat juices from samples were subjected to an indirect-ELISA kit for the presence of T. gondii IgG antibodies. Furthermore, all 184 meat samples of goat and sheep were subjected to conventional nested PCR (B1 genes) for the detection of T. gondii DNA; (3) Results: T. gondii antibodies were detected in 25% (n = 98/392) of the samples with seroprevalence of 9.1% (19/208, CI: 5.9%–13.8%) in cattle meat; 54.7% (41/75, 95% CI: 43.5%–65.4%) in goat meat and 34.9% (38/109, CI: 26.6%–44.2%) in sheep meat. No T. gondii DNA was detected in any of the meat samples of goat and sheep. T. gondii seropositivity in wet market samples was higher in goat (OR = 37.1 CI 12.4–110.3) and sheep meat (OR 9.03 CI: 3.28–24.8) compared to cattle meat (OR = 1.0) At univariate level, meat from non-licensed abattoirs (OR = 6.0 CI: 2.9–12.3) and female animals (OR = 6.7; CI 1.9–22.6) had higher risks of being seropositive for T. gondii antibodies than licensed abattoirs and male animals, respectively. (4) Conclusions: This is the first report of seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant meats for human consumption in Malaysia. The findings signified high exposure of meat samples from wet markets to T. gondii and the need for control measures to reduce the likelihood of infection when such raw or undercooked meats are consumed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; ruminants; wet markets; abattoir; meat juice; ELISA Toxoplasma gondii; ruminants; wet markets; abattoir; meat juice; ELISA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdul Hamid, N.; Sadiq, M.B.; Ramanoon, S.Z.; Mansor, R.; Watanabe, M.; Md Isa, N.M.; Kamaludeen, J.; Syed-Hussain, S.S. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia. Animals 2020, 10, 1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139

AMA Style

Abdul Hamid N, Sadiq MB, Ramanoon SZ, Mansor R, Watanabe M, Md Isa NM, Kamaludeen J, Syed-Hussain SS. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia. Animals. 2020; 10(7):1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdul Hamid, Norhamizah; Sadiq, Mohammed B.; Ramanoon, Siti Z.; Mansor, Rozaihan; Watanabe, Malaika; Md Isa, Nur M.; Kamaludeen, Juriah; Syed-Hussain, Sharifah S. 2020. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia" Animals 10, no. 7: 1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139

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