Next Article in Journal
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia
Next Article in Special Issue
Detection of Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistant mcr-1 Gene in Escherichia coli Isolated from Infected Chicken Livers in Nepal
Previous Article in Journal
Use of a Tri-Axial Accelerometer Can Reliably Detect Play Behaviour in Newborn Calves
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of a Synbiotic Mix on Lymphoid Organs of Broilers Infected with Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium perfringens
Open AccessReview

Impact of Housing Environment on the Immune System in Chickens: A Review

1
Department of Behavioral Physiology of Livestock, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr, 17, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Department of Livestock Population Genomics, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr, 17, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071138
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Microbiology and Immunology)
In poultry production, chickens are confronted with a wide range of potential stressful conditions including restricted movement, long light phases or poor air quality. It is well known that stressors can have negative effects on the immune system. A fully functional immune system is, however, not only essential for chicken health and welfare but also for high productivity and safe animal products. This review summarizes current knowledge about the impact of housing form, light regime, aerial ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations on the immune system in chickens and outlines possible mechanisms and interactions.
During their lifespan, chickens are confronted with a wide range of acute and chronic stressors in their housing environment that may threaten their welfare and health by modulating the immune system. Especially chronic stressful conditions can exceed the individual’s allostatic load, with negative consequences for immunity. A fully functional immune system is mandatory for health and welfare and, consequently, also for high productivity and safe animal products. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the impact of housing form, light regime as well as aerial ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations on the immune system in chickens. Certain housing conditions are clearly associated with immunological alterations which potentially impair the success of vaccinations or affect disease susceptibility. Such poor conditions counteract sustainable poultry production. This review also outlines current knowledge gaps and provides recommendations for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: poultry; chicken; immune system; housing condition; stress; stressors; immune modulation; health; housing form; light regime poultry; chicken; immune system; housing condition; stress; stressors; immune modulation; health; housing form; light regime
MDPI and ACS Style

Hofmann, T.; Schmucker, S.S.; Bessei, W.; Grashorn, M.; Stefanski, V. Impact of Housing Environment on the Immune System in Chickens: A Review. Animals 2020, 10, 1138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071138

AMA Style

Hofmann T, Schmucker SS, Bessei W, Grashorn M, Stefanski V. Impact of Housing Environment on the Immune System in Chickens: A Review. Animals. 2020; 10(7):1138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071138

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hofmann, Tanja; Schmucker, Sonja S.; Bessei, Werner; Grashorn, Michael; Stefanski, Volker. 2020. "Impact of Housing Environment on the Immune System in Chickens: A Review" Animals 10, no. 7: 1138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071138

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop