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Article

Serum Concentrations of Essential Trace and Toxic Elements in Healthy and Disease-Affected Dogs

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Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Terra, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito EC170521, Ecuador
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Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Terra, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Rof-Codina Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Terra, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Research Institute on Chemical and Biological Analysis, Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Terra, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061052
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
Establishing reference ranges for essential and toxic trace elements in dogs is important to assess health status and to enable assessments of the background levels of toxic element exposure. On the other hand, establishing whether trace element concentrations vary in relation to different pathologies is also important. Serum concentrations of trace elements may be effective diagnostic markers and may help in understanding the pathogenesis of different diseases (and the associated causal relationships).
This study was designed (i) to establish reference ranges for the essential trace element and background levels of toxic element exposure in the healthy/normal dog population, and (ii) to evaluate whether trace element concentrations vary in dogs suffering from different pathologies. Blood serum samples were collected from 187 healthy and diseased dogs at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela (northwest Spain). The samples were acid digested, and the concentrations of trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This enabled us to establish reference ranges for the essential trace elements and the level of toxic element exposure in dogs, and to identify several clinical situations associated with variations in trace elements in serum. Relative to concentrations in healthy control dogs, statistically significant differences were observed in the concentrations of Cu (significantly higher in hepatic, inflammatory/infectious and oncological categories), Mo (significantly higher in renal category), Se (significantly lower in gastrointestinal category) and Zn (significantly lower in gastrointestinal, inflammatory/infectious and renal categories). Trace element concentrations can be a cause or consequence of disease, and the study findings indicate that trace element determination in serum provides useful information on the pathogenesis of certain diseases. Further research on the serum concentrations of trace elements, particularly in relation to other biochemical parameters and diagnostic tools, may provide valuable information for the diagnosis of diseases in dogs and the disease prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace and toxic elements; serum; dog; inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) trace and toxic elements; serum; dog; inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cedeño, Y.; Miranda, M.; Orjales, I.; Herrero-Latorre, C.; Suárez, M.; Luna, D.; López-Alonso, M. Serum Concentrations of Essential Trace and Toxic Elements in Healthy and Disease-Affected Dogs. Animals 2020, 10, 1052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061052

AMA Style

Cedeño Y, Miranda M, Orjales I, Herrero-Latorre C, Suárez M, Luna D, López-Alonso M. Serum Concentrations of Essential Trace and Toxic Elements in Healthy and Disease-Affected Dogs. Animals. 2020; 10(6):1052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cedeño, Yolanda, Marta Miranda, Inmaculada Orjales, Carlos Herrero-Latorre, Maruska Suárez, Diego Luna, and Marta López-Alonso. 2020. "Serum Concentrations of Essential Trace and Toxic Elements in Healthy and Disease-Affected Dogs" Animals 10, no. 6: 1052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061052

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