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Article

Fatty Acid Profile and Enterolactone Content of Early and Commercial Milk of Dairy Cows Supplemented with Flaked Flaxseed during the Dry Period

1
Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science (BCA), University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
2
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122394
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection High-Yielding Dairy Cows)
Several studies have been published on n-3 fatty acids enrichment of food of animal origin by the use of specific supplements in animal feeding. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is known as an excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly of alpha-linolenic acid. Moreover, most of the plant lignans contained in flaxseeds are converted by the animal in mammalian lignans, such as enterodiol and enterolactone. Thus, milk with elevated enterolactone may be an efficient strategy to optimize the effects of lignans on human health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of flacked flaxseed supplementation on dairy cow during the pre-partum period. The increase of n-3 on milk obtained from cow fed the flaxseed diet was detected only in the first days of lactation. In addition, an increase of enterolactone on milk from flaxseed fed cows was observed only at 15th day after calving; a higher amount of enetrolactone was detected in plasma and milk from the 15th day after calving, independently from the treatment group. This study suggests that the duration of n-3 carry-over into the milk is dependent on the n-3 feeding source concentration. Finally, more studies are needed to investigate enterolactone metabolism in ruminants.
Various supplementations in animal feeding have been investigate in order to enrich food of animal origin with n-3 fatty acids. Although the effects of flaxseeds inclusion in diets for lactating dairy have already been assessed, few studies have focused on this n-3 source supplementation during the transition period. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of flacked flaxseed (200 g/head/day; 2.13% DM) dietary treatment during the dry period on milk yield and quality in the 30 days after calving. In addition, the enterolactone content in plasma (before and after calving) and in milk of cows fed diets supplemented or not with flaxseed was considered. The study demonstrated that the carry-over effect on the milk profile of C18:2, C18:3 n-3, and C20:5 n-3 was significantly higher in flaxseed diet than in the control one at 4th day of lactation. A significant increase of enterolactone on milk from flaxseed fed cows was observed only at 15 sampling day. The quick modification in fatty acid (FA) profile of the milk in the first few days of lactation suggests that the carry over effect from pre-calving flaxseed feeding at this concentration was very short lasting. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaxseed; dairy cows; dry period; enterolactone; milk fatty acids flaxseed; dairy cows; dry period; enterolactone; milk fatty acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bailoni, L.; Da Dalt, L.; Gabai, G.; Giaretta, E.; Guzzo, N.; Mantovani, R. Fatty Acid Profile and Enterolactone Content of Early and Commercial Milk of Dairy Cows Supplemented with Flaked Flaxseed during the Dry Period. Animals 2020, 10, 2394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122394

AMA Style

Bailoni L, Da Dalt L, Gabai G, Giaretta E, Guzzo N, Mantovani R. Fatty Acid Profile and Enterolactone Content of Early and Commercial Milk of Dairy Cows Supplemented with Flaked Flaxseed during the Dry Period. Animals. 2020; 10(12):2394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bailoni, Lucia, Laura Da Dalt, Gianfranco Gabai, Elisa Giaretta, Nadia Guzzo, and Roberto Mantovani. 2020. "Fatty Acid Profile and Enterolactone Content of Early and Commercial Milk of Dairy Cows Supplemented with Flaked Flaxseed during the Dry Period" Animals 10, no. 12: 2394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122394

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