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Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli

Institute for Food Quality and Food Safety, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, D-30173 Hannover, Germany
Working Group Meat Hygiene, Institute Food Safety and Food Hygiene, Freie Universität Berlin, Königsweg 67, D-14163 Berlin, Germany
Institute for Veterinary Food Science, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Str. 92, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety, D-26203 Wardenburg, Germany
Unit for Biomathematics and Data Processing, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Str. 95, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Labrini V. Athanasiou
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 367;
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal and Wildlife Zoonotic Microorganisms)
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent major healthcare concerns. The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these bacteria is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine their prevalence in wild boars in Germany and to characterize individual isolates. A total of 375 fecal samples and 439 nasal swabs were screened for the presence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli and MRSA, respectively. The associations of seven demographic and anthropogenic variables with the occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli were statistically evaluated. Collected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing methods, and gene detection by PCR and genome sequencing. ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli were detected in 22 fecal samples (5.9%) whereas no MRSA were detected. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli in wild boars was significantly and positively associated with human population density. Of the 22 E. coli, 19 were confirmed as ESBL-producers and carried genes belonging to blaCTX-M group 1 or blaSHV-12. The remaining three isolates carried the AmpC-β-lactamase gene blaCMY-2. Several isolates showed additional antimicrobial resistances. All four major phylogenetic groups were represented with group B1 being the most common. This study demonstrates that wild boars can serve as a reservoir for ESBL-/AmpC-producing and multidrug-resistant E. coli. View Full-Text
Keywords: wild boars; ESBL-producing Escherichia coli; AmpC; multidrug resistance; MRSA wild boars; ESBL-producing Escherichia coli; AmpC; multidrug resistance; MRSA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Holtmann, A.R.; Meemken, D.; Müller, A.; Seinige, D.; Büttner, K.; Failing, K.; Kehrenberg, C. Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 367.

AMA Style

Holtmann AR, Meemken D, Müller A, Seinige D, Büttner K, Failing K, Kehrenberg C. Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):367.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Holtmann, Anna R., Diana Meemken, Anja Müller, Diana Seinige, Kathrin Büttner, Klaus Failing, and Corinna Kehrenberg. 2021. "Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 367.

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