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Open AccessArticle

Recent Molecular Evolution of Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV): Subdivision of HMPV A2b Strains

1
Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama 208-0011, Japan
2
Yokohama City Institute of Public Health, Yokohama 236-0051, Japan
3
Virus Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Sendai Medical Center, Sendai 983-8520, Japan
4
Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku 162-8640, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Hokudai Center for Zoonosis Control in Zambia, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
Current address: Department of Intelligent Network for Infection Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091280
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major etiological agent of acute respiratory infections in humans. HMPV has been circulating worldwide for more than six decades and is currently divided into five agreed-upon subtypes: A1, A2a, A2b, B1, and B2. Recently, the novel HMPV subtypes A2c, A2b1, and A2b2 have been proposed. However, the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships between these recently proposed HMPV subtypes are unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of 161 HMPV strains, including unique HMPV subtype A2b strains with a 180- or 111-nucleotide duplication in the G gene (nt-dup). Our data demonstrate that the HMPV A2b subtype contains two distinct subtypes, A2b1 and A2b2, and that the HMPV subtypes A2c and A2b2 may be different names for the same subtype. HMPV A2b strains with a nt-dup also belong to subtype A2b2. Molecular evolutionary analyses indicate that subtypes A2b1 and A2b2 diverged from subtype A2b around a decade after the subtype A2 was divided into the subtypes A2a and A2b. These data support the A2b1 and A2b2 subtypes proposed in 2012 and are essential for the unified classification of HMPV subtype A2 strains, which is important for future HMPV surveillance and epidemiological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: human metapneumovirus; HMPV; molecular epidemiology; molecular evolution; subtyping; nucleotide duplication human metapneumovirus; HMPV; molecular epidemiology; molecular evolution; subtyping; nucleotide duplication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nao, N.; Saikusa, M.; Sato, K.; Sekizuka, T.; Usuku, S.; Tanaka, N.; Nishimura, H.; Takeda, M. Recent Molecular Evolution of Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV): Subdivision of HMPV A2b Strains. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091280

AMA Style

Nao N, Saikusa M, Sato K, Sekizuka T, Usuku S, Tanaka N, Nishimura H, Takeda M. Recent Molecular Evolution of Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV): Subdivision of HMPV A2b Strains. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(9):1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nao, Naganori; Saikusa, Miwako; Sato, Ko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Usuku, Shuzo; Tanaka, Nobuko; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Takeda, Makoto. 2020. "Recent Molecular Evolution of Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV): Subdivision of HMPV A2b Strains" Microorganisms 8, no. 9: 1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091280

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