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Open AccessArticle

Composition and Metabolic Functions of the Microbiome in Fermented Grain during Light-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation

1
MOE Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3
Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Food Science and Engineering College, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 100026, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091281
Received: 19 July 2020 / Revised: 18 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 22 August 2020
The metabolism and accumulation of flavor compounds in Chinese Baijiu are driven by microbiota succession and their inter-related metabolic processes. Changes in the microbiome composition during Baijiu production have been examined previously; however, the respective metabolic functions remain unclear. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics, we examined the microbial and metabolic characteristics during light-flavor Baijiu fermentation to assess the correlations between microorganisms and their potential functions. During fermentation, the bacterial abundance increased from 58.2% to 97.65%, and fermentation resulted in the accumulation of various metabolites, among which alcohols and esters were the most abundant. Correlation analyses revealed that the levels of major metabolites were positively correlated with bacterial abundance but negatively with that of fungi. Gene annotation showed that the Lactobacillus species contained key enzyme genes for carbohydrate metabolism and contributed to the entire fermentation process. Lichtheimia ramosa, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Bacillus licheniformis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia kudriavzevii play major roles in starch degradation and ethanol production. A link was established between the composition and metabolic functions of the microbiota involved in Baijiu fermentation, which helps elucidate microbial and metabolic patterns of fermentation and provides insights into the potential optimization of Baijiu production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Baijiu; fermented grain; microbiome composition; metabolites; shotgun metagenomics Baijiu; fermented grain; microbiome composition; metabolites; shotgun metagenomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, X.; Fan, Y.; Lu, T.; Kang, J.; Pang, X.; Han, B.; Chen, J. Composition and Metabolic Functions of the Microbiome in Fermented Grain during Light-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1281. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091281

AMA Style

Huang X, Fan Y, Lu T, Kang J, Pang X, Han B, Chen J. Composition and Metabolic Functions of the Microbiome in Fermented Grain during Light-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(9):1281. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091281

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Xiaoning; Fan, Yi; Lu, Ting; Kang, Jiamu; Pang, Xiaona; Han, Beizhong; Chen, Jingyu. 2020. "Composition and Metabolic Functions of the Microbiome in Fermented Grain during Light-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation" Microorganisms 8, no. 9: 1281. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091281

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