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Open AccessArticle

The Complexity of the Holobiont in the Red Sea Coral Euphyllia paradivisa under Heat Stress

by Dalit Meron 1,2,†, Keren Maor-Landaw 1,3,†, Gal Eyal 1,4, Hila Elifantz 1, Ehud Banin 1,5, Yossi Loya 6 and Oren Levy 1,*
1
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
2
Morris Kahn Marine Research Station, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
3
School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
4
ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia
5
The Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
6
Department of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030372
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in the Evolution of Animals and Plants)
The recognition of the microbiota complexity and their role in the evolution of their host is leading to the popularization of the holobiont concept. However, the coral holobiont (host and its microbiota) is still enigmatic and unclear. Here, we explore the complex relations between different holobiont members of a mesophotic coral Euphyllia paradivisa. We subjected two lines of the coral—with photosymbionts, and without photosymbionts (apo-symbiotic)—to increasing temperatures and to antibiotics. The different symbiotic states were characterized using transcriptomics, microbiology and physiology techniques. The bacterial community’s composition is dominated by bacteroidetes, alphaproteobacteria, and gammaproteobacteria, but is dependent upon the symbiont state, colony, temperature treatment, and antibiotic exposure. Overall, the most important parameter determining the response was whether the coral was a symbiont/apo-symbiotic, while the colony and bacterial composition were secondary factors. Enrichment Gene Ontology analysis of coral host’s differentially expressed genes demonstrated the cellular differences between symbiotic and apo-symbiotic samples. Our results demonstrate the significance of each component of the holobiont consortium and imply a coherent link between them, which dramatically impacts the molecular and cellular processes of the coral host, which possibly affect its fitness, particularly under environmental stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: holobiont; heat stress; algal symbiont; coral; Euphyllia paradivisa; apo-symbiont; microbial communities holobiont; heat stress; algal symbiont; coral; Euphyllia paradivisa; apo-symbiont; microbial communities
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Meron, D.; Maor-Landaw, K.; Eyal, G.; Elifantz, H.; Banin, E.; Loya, Y.; Levy, O. The Complexity of the Holobiont in the Red Sea Coral Euphyllia paradivisa under Heat Stress. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 372.

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