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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Modernization and Disease on the Gastric Microbiome of Orang Asli, Myanmars and Modern Malaysians

1
The Marshall Centre for Infectious Diseases Research and Training, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
School of Life Sciences and Chemical Technology, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore
4
School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
5
Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3216, Australia
6
Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, The Centre for Medical Research at the University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
7
Department of Gastroenterology, Thingangyun Sanpya General Hospital, Yangon 11071, Myanmar
8
Microbiology Department, University of Medicine 2, Yangon 11031, Myanmar
9
University of Medical Technology, Mandalay 05071, Myanmar
10
Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
11
CliniPath Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur 55100, Malaysia
12
Hospital Orang Asli Gombak, Selangor 53100, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060174
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
The present study explored the differences in gastric microbiome between three distinct populations of Southeast Asia. These include the isolated Orang Asli population and modern Malaysians, as well as patients from Myanmar, the least developed country in the region. All 79 subjects recruited in this study had Helicobacter pylori infection. Based on alpha diversity analysis, Orang Asli had the richest and most diverse gastric microbiome, followed by Myanmar and modern Malaysian groups. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant separation of samples between different populations. These observations are likely to be associated with the level of modernization of each population. Our data further suggested increased bacterial species richness and diversity of the gastric microbiome in individuals who were less modernized, particularly in the Orang Asli group, could suppress the growth of H. pylori. In addition, there were significant variations in the gastric microbiome between modern Malaysians with different types of gastric diseases. Notably, Cutibacterium acnes was present at significantly greater abundance level in patients with non-ulcerative dyspepsia than those with peptic-ulcer diagnosis. This suggests that C. acnes may also play a role in gastritis besides H. pylori, which merits further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; 16S rRNA gene sequencing; Orang Asli; Myanmar; Malaysian; gastric disease; beta diversity; microbiome Helicobacter pylori; 16S rRNA gene sequencing; Orang Asli; Myanmar; Malaysian; gastric disease; beta diversity; microbiome
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Chua, E.G.; Loke, M.F.; Gunaletchumy, S.P.; Gan, H.M.; Thevakumar, K.; Tay, C.Y.; Young, S.; Aye, T.T.; Maw, W.W.; Aye, M.M.; Leow, A. .-R.; Azmi, A.N.; Kalimuthu, S.G.; Dahlan, H.M.A.B.D.; Goh, K.L.; Vadivelu, J. The Influence of Modernization and Disease on the Gastric Microbiome of Orang Asli, Myanmars and Modern Malaysians. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 174.

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