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Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040100

Lysis Profiles of Salmonella Phages on Salmonella Isolates from Various Sources and Efficiency of a Phage Cocktail against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium

1
Department of Food Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112, Thailand
2
Department of Microbiology, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
3
Escuela Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 440, 8370251 Santiago, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol of Food Borne Pathogens)
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Abstract

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are major foodborne pathogens of concern worldwide. Bacteriophage applications have gained more interest for biocontrol in foods. This study isolated 36 Salmonella phages from several animal farms in Thailand and tested them on 47 Salmonella strains from several sources, including farms, seafood processing plant and humans in Thailand and USA. Phages were classified into three major groups. The estimated phage genome size showed the range from 50 ± 2 to 200 ± 2 kb. An effective phage cocktail consisting of three phages was developed. Approximately 4 log CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium could be reduced. These phages revealed a burst size of up to 97.7 on S. Enteritidis and 173.7 PFU/cell on S. Typhimurium. Our phage cocktail could decrease S. Enteritidis on chicken meat and sunflower sprouts by 0.66 log CFU/cm2 and 1.27 log CFU/g, respectively. S. Typhimurium on chicken meat and sunflower sprouts were decreased by 1.73 log CFU/cm2 and 1.17 log CFU/g, respectively. Overall, animal farms in Thailand provided high abundance and diversity of Salmonella phages with the lysis ability on Salmonella hosts from various environments and continents. A developed phage cocktail suggests a potential biocontrol against Salmonella in fresh foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella phage; animal farm; phage host range; phage cocktail; Salmonella serovar; chicken meat; sunflower sprout Salmonella phage; animal farm; phage host range; phage cocktail; Salmonella serovar; chicken meat; sunflower sprout
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Petsong, K.; Benjakul, S.; Chaturongakul, S.; Switt, A.I.M.; Vongkamjan, K. Lysis Profiles of Salmonella Phages on Salmonella Isolates from Various Sources and Efficiency of a Phage Cocktail against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 100.

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