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Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040128

Distinctive Nuclear Features of Dinoflagellates with A Particular Focus on Histone and Histone-Replacement Proteins

1
Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao, 266003, China
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Microbiology, Hazara University, Mansehra 21120, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinoflagellate Biology in the Omics Era)
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Abstract

Dinoflagellates are important eukaryotic microorganisms that play critical roles as producers and grazers, and cause harmful algal blooms. The unusual nuclei of dinoflagellates “dinokaryon” have led researchers to investigate their enigmatic nuclear features. Their nuclei are unusual in terms of their permanently condensed nucleosome-less chromatin, immense genome, low protein to DNA ratio, guanine-cytosine rich methylated DNA, and unique mitosis process. Furthermore, dinoflagellates are the only known group of eukaryotes that apparently lack histone proteins. Over the course of evolution, dinoflagellates have recruited other proteins, e.g., histone-like proteins (HLPs), from bacteria and dinoflagellates/viral nucleoproteins (DVNPs) from viruses as histone substitutes. Expression diversity of these nucleoproteins has greatly influenced the chromatin structure and gene expression regulation in dinoflagellates. Histone replacement proteins (HLPs and DVNPs) are hypothesized to perform a few similar roles as histone proteins do in other eukaryotes, i.e., gene expression regulation and repairing DNA. However, their role in bulk packaging of DNA is not significant as low amounts of proteins are associated with the gigantic genome. This review intends to summarize the discoveries encompassing unique nuclear features of dinoflagellates, particularly focusing on histone and histone replacement proteins. In addition, a comprehensive view of the evolution of dinoflagellate nuclei is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dinokaryon; chromatin; histones; histone-like proteins; dinoflagellate/viral nucleoproteins; evolution Dinokaryon; chromatin; histones; histone-like proteins; dinoflagellate/viral nucleoproteins; evolution
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Riaz, S.; Sui, Z.; Niaz, Z.; Khan, S.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H. Distinctive Nuclear Features of Dinoflagellates with A Particular Focus on Histone and Histone-Replacement Proteins. Microorganisms 2018, 6, 128.

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