Next Article in Journal
Marine Alkaloid 2,2-Bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) Ethylamine and Its Synthetic Derivatives Inhibit Microbial Biofilms Formation and Disaggregate Developed Biofilms
Previous Article in Journal
Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins Contaminating Veterinary Diets for Dogs and Cats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Distinctive Nuclear Features of Dinoflagellates with A Particular Focus on Histone and Histone-Replacement Proteins
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020027

Architectural Organization of Dinoflagellate Liquid Crystalline Chromosomes

Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Life Science, Clearwater Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinoflagellate Biology in the Omics Era)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3732 KB, uploaded 22 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Dinoflagellates have some of the largest genome sizes, but lack architectural nucleosomes. Their liquid crystalline chromosomes (LCCs) are the only non-architectural protein-mediated chromosome packaging systems, having high degrees of DNA superhelicity, liquid crystalline condensation and high levels of chromosomal divalent cations. Recent observations on the reversible decompaction–recompaction of higher-order structures implicated that LCCs are composed of superhelical modules (SPMs) comprising highly supercoiled DNA. Orientated polarizing light photomicrography suggested the presence of three compartments with different packaging DNA density in LCCs. Recent and previous biophysical data suggest that LCCs are composed of: (a) the highly birefringent inner core compartment (i) with a high-density columnar-hexagonal mesophase (CH-m); (b) the lower-density core surface compartment (ii.1) consisting of a spiraling chromonema; (c) the birefringent-negative periphery compartment (ii.2) comprising peripheral chromosomal loops. C(ii.1) and C(ii.2) are in dynamic equilibrium, and can merge into a single compartment during dinomitosis, regulated through multiphasic reversible soft-matter phase transitions. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinoflagellate; liquid crystalline chromosomes; liquid crystalline DNA; phase transition; superhelical module; 5-hydroxymethyluracil; nucleosome; superhelical condensation; chromosome dinoflagellate; liquid crystalline chromosomes; liquid crystalline DNA; phase transition; superhelical module; 5-hydroxymethyluracil; nucleosome; superhelical condensation; chromosome
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, J.T.Y. Architectural Organization of Dinoflagellate Liquid Crystalline Chromosomes. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top