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Open AccessReview

Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain?

by Mark E. M. Obrenovich 1,2,3,4,5
1
Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
The Gilgamesh Foundation for Medical Science and Research, Cleveland, OH 44116, USA
4
Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
5
Departments of Chemistry and Biological and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040107
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Diversity Relates to Lifestyle)
‘Leaky gut’ syndrome, long-associated with celiac disease, has attracted much attention in recent years and for decades, was widely known in complementary/alternative medicine circles. It is often described as an increase in the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which could allow bacteria, toxic digestive metabolites, bacterial toxins, and small molecules to ‘leak’ into the bloodstream. Nervous system involvement with celiac disease is know to occur even at subclinical levels. Gluten and gluten sensitivity are considered to trigger this syndrome in individuals genetically predisposed to celiac disease. However, the incidence of celiac disease in the general population is quite low. Nevertheless, increased public interest in gluten sensitivity has contributed to expanded food labels stating ‘gluten-free’ and the proliferation of gluten-free products, which further drives gluten-free lifestyle changes by individuals without frank celiac disease. Moreover, systemic inflammation is associated with celiac disease, depression, and psychiatric comorbidities. This mini-review focuses on the possible neurophysiological basis of leaky gut; leaky brain disease; and the microbiota’s contribution to inflammation, gastrointestinal, and blood-brain barrier integrity, in order to build a case for possible mechanisms that could foster further ‘leaky’ syndromes. We ask whether a gluten-free diet is important for anyone or only those with celiac disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaky gut; leaky brain; microbiota; microbiome; celiac disease; gluten; gluten-free; microbiota-gut-brain axis; metabolic interactome; inflammation; blood barriers leaky gut; leaky brain; microbiota; microbiome; celiac disease; gluten; gluten-free; microbiota-gut-brain axis; metabolic interactome; inflammation; blood barriers
MDPI and ACS Style

Obrenovich, M.E.M. Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain? Microorganisms 2018, 6, 107.

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