Next Article in Journal
Research Progress and Hopeful Strategies of Application of Quorum Sensing in Food, Agriculture and Nanomedicine
Next Article in Special Issue
Advanced Molecular and Immunological Diagnostic Methods to Detect SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Early Life Microbiota Composition in the Development of Allergic Diseases
Previous Article in Special Issue
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Alpha and Delta Variant Breakthrough Infections Are Rare and Mild but Can Happen Relatively Early after Vaccination
 
 
Article

Effects of Antibody Responses to Pre-Existing Coronaviruses on Disease Severity and Complement Activation in COVID-19 Patients

1
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
UOC Medicina Generale–Emostasi e Trombosi, Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Immunorheumatology Research Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20145 Milan, Italy
4
Epidemiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
Virology Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
6
Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI), 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Contini
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061191
Received: 2 May 2022 / Revised: 6 June 2022 / Accepted: 8 June 2022 / Published: 10 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in SARS-CoV-2 Infection)
The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be influenced by pre-existing immune responses against endemic coronaviruses, but conflicting data have been reported. We studied 148 patients who were hospitalised because of a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, classified mild in 58, moderate in 44, and severe in 46. The controls were 27 healthy subjects. At admission, blood samples were collected for the measurement of biomarkers of disease severity and levels of the IgG against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and pre-existing coronaviruses OC43, HKU1, NL63 and 229E. Higher levels of IgG antibodies against the RBD of pre-existing coronavirus (with the highest significance for anti-HKU1 IgG, p = 0.01) were found in patients with mild disease, compared with those with moderate or severe disease. Multivariable logistic regression confirmed the association of high levels of antibodies to pre-existing coronavirus with mild disease and showed their associations with low levels of the complement activation marker SC5b-9 (p range = 0.007–0.05). High levels of anti-NL63 antibodies were associated with low levels of the coagulation activation marker D-dimer (p = 0.04), while high levels of IgG against 229E were associated with low levels of the endothelial activation marker von Willebrand factor (p = 0.05). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-neutralising activity of plasma positively correlated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) and with anti-HKU1 IgG (r = 0.51, p = 0.05). In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, high levels of antibodies to pre-existing coronaviruses are associated with mild disease, suggesting that their measurement could be useful in predicting the severity of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibodies; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; OC43; HKU1; NL63; 229E; neutralisation assay; complement; endothelium; D-dimer; von Willebrand factor antibodies; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; OC43; HKU1; NL63; 229E; neutralisation assay; complement; endothelium; D-dimer; von Willebrand factor
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Cugno, M.; Meroni, P.L.; Consonni, D.; Griffini, S.; Grovetti, E.; Novembrino, C.; Torri, A.; Griffante, G.; Gariglio, M.; Varani, L.; Peyvandi, F. Effects of Antibody Responses to Pre-Existing Coronaviruses on Disease Severity and Complement Activation in COVID-19 Patients. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061191

AMA Style

Cugno M, Meroni PL, Consonni D, Griffini S, Grovetti E, Novembrino C, Torri A, Griffante G, Gariglio M, Varani L, Peyvandi F. Effects of Antibody Responses to Pre-Existing Coronaviruses on Disease Severity and Complement Activation in COVID-19 Patients. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(6):1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cugno, Massimo, Pier Luigi Meroni, Dario Consonni, Samantha Griffini, Elena Grovetti, Cristina Novembrino, Adriana Torri, Gloria Griffante, Marisa Gariglio, Luca Varani, and Flora Peyvandi. 2022. "Effects of Antibody Responses to Pre-Existing Coronaviruses on Disease Severity and Complement Activation in COVID-19 Patients" Microorganisms 10, no. 6: 1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061191

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop