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Open AccessArticle

Differences in the Endophytic Microbiome of Olive Cultivars Infected by Xylella fastidiosa across Seasons

1
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Campus de Santa Apolónia, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Sede Secondaria di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
4
Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute (BioISI), Plant Functional Biology Center (CBFP), Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090723
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endophytes in Plant Health and Disease)
The dynamics of Xylella fastidiosa infections in the context of the endophytic microbiome was studied in field-grown plants of the susceptible and resistant olive cultivars Kalamata and FS17. Whole metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMSS) coupled with 16S/ITS rRNA gene sequencing was carried out on the same trees at two different stages of the infections: In Spring 2017 when plants were almost symptomless and in Autumn 2018 when the trees of the susceptible cultivar clearly showed desiccations. The progression of the infections detected in both cultivars clearly unraveled that Xylella tends to occupy the whole ecological niche and suppresses the diversity of the endophytic microbiome. However, this trend was mitigated in the resistant cultivar FS17, harboring lower population sizes and therefore lower Xylella average abundance ratio over total bacteria, and a higher α-diversity. Host cultivar had a negligible effect on the community composition and no clear associations of a single taxon or microbial consortia with the resistance cultivar were found with both sequencing approaches, suggesting that the mechanisms of resistance likely reside on factors that are independent of the microbiome structure. Overall, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteriodetes dominated the bacterial microbiome while Ascomycota and Basidiomycota those of Fungi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Xylella fastidiosa; bacteria; fungi; archaea; 16S/ITS sequencing; shotgun metagenomic sequencing; kalamata; FS17; resistance Xylella fastidiosa; bacteria; fungi; archaea; 16S/ITS sequencing; shotgun metagenomic sequencing; kalamata; FS17; resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giampetruzzi, A.; Baptista, P.; Morelli, M.; Cameirão, C.; Lino Neto, T.; Costa, D.; D’Attoma, G.; Abou Kubaa, R.; Altamura, G.; Saponari, M.; Pereira, J.A.; Saldarelli, P. Differences in the Endophytic Microbiome of Olive Cultivars Infected by Xylella fastidiosa across Seasons. Pathogens 2020, 9, 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090723

AMA Style

Giampetruzzi A, Baptista P, Morelli M, Cameirão C, Lino Neto T, Costa D, D’Attoma G, Abou Kubaa R, Altamura G, Saponari M, Pereira JA, Saldarelli P. Differences in the Endophytic Microbiome of Olive Cultivars Infected by Xylella fastidiosa across Seasons. Pathogens. 2020; 9(9):723. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090723

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Baptista, Paula; Morelli, Massimiliano; Cameirão, Cristina; Lino Neto, Teresa; Costa, Daniela; D’Attoma, Giusy; Abou Kubaa, Raied; Altamura, Giuseppe; Saponari, Maria; Pereira, José A.; Saldarelli, Pasquale. 2020. "Differences in the Endophytic Microbiome of Olive Cultivars Infected by Xylella fastidiosa across Seasons" Pathogens 9, no. 9: 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090723

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