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Open AccessArticle

A Post-Haustorial Defense Mechanism is Mediated by the Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene, PmG3M, Derived from Wild Emmer Wheat

1
Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, 199 Abba-Hushi Avenue, Mt. Carmel, 3498838 Haifa, Israel
2
The Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, 199 Abba-Hushi Avenue, Mt. Carmel, 3498838 Haifa, Israel
3
Crop Development Centre and Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present affiliation: Department of Agronomy, the Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm Resource of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060418
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
The destructive wheat powdery mildew disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). PmG3M, derived from wild emmer wheat Triticum dicoccoides accession G305-3M, is a major gene providing a wide-spectrum resistance against Bgt. PmG3M was previously mapped to wheat chromosome 6B using an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population generated by crossing G305-3M with the susceptible T. durum wheat cultivar Langdon (LDN). In the current study, we aimed to explore the defense mechanisms conferred by PmG3M against Bgt. Histopathology of fungal development was characterized in artificially inoculated leaves of G305-3M, LDN, and homozygous RILs using fluorescence and light microscopy. G305-3M exhibited H2O2 accumulation typical of a hypersensitive response, which resulted in programmed cell death (PCD) in Bgt-penetrated epidermal cells, while LDN showed well-developed colonies without PCD. In addition, we observed a post-haustorial resistance mechanism that arrested the development of fungal feeding structures and pathogen growth in both G305-3M and resistant RIL, while LDN and a susceptible RIL displayed fully developed digitated haustoria and massive accumulation of fungal biomass. In contrast, both G305-3M and LDN exhibited callose deposition in attempt to prevent fungal invasion, supporting this as a mechanism of a basal defense response not associated with PmG3M resistance mechanism per se. The presented results shed light on the resistance mechanisms conferred by PmG3M against wheat powdery mildew. View Full-Text
Keywords: powdery mildew; wild emmer wheat; PmG3M; post-haustorial resistance; H2O2 accumulation; programmed cell death powdery mildew; wild emmer wheat; PmG3M; post-haustorial resistance; H2O2 accumulation; programmed cell death
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wei, Z.-Z.; Klymiuk, V.; Bocharova, V.; Pozniak, C.; Fahima, T. A Post-Haustorial Defense Mechanism is Mediated by the Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene, PmG3M, Derived from Wild Emmer Wheat. Pathogens 2020, 9, 418.

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