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Article

Genome Sequencing of Paecilomyces Penicillatus Provides Insights into Its Phylogenetic Placement and Mycoparasitism Mechanisms on Morel Mushrooms

by 1,2,3,†, 3,†, 2, 3, 4, 1,2 and 2,*
1
Department of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
3
Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48842, USA
4
Life Science College, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130118, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(10), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100834
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
Morels (Morchella spp.) are popular edible fungi with significant economic and scientific value. However, white mold disease, caused by Paecilomyces penicillatus, can reduce morel yield by up to 80% in the main cultivation area in China. Paecilomyces is a polyphyletic genus and the exact phylogenetic placement of P. penicillatus is currently still unclear. Here, we obtained the first high-quality genome sequence of P. penicillatus generated through the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform. The assembled draft genome of P. penicillatus was 40.2 Mb, had an N50 value of 2.6 Mb and encoded 9454 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of single-copy orthologous genes revealed that P. penicillatus is in Hypocreales and closely related to Hypocreaceae, which includes several genera exhibiting a mycoparasitic lifestyle. CAZymes analysis demonstrated that P. penicillatus encodes a large number of fungal cell wall degradation enzymes. We identified many gene clusters involved in the production of secondary metabolites known to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, or insecticidal activities. We further demonstrated through dual culture assays that P. penicillatus secretes certain soluble compounds that are inhibitory to the mycelial growth of Morchella sextelata. This study provides insights into the correct phylogenetic placement of P. penicillatus and the molecular mechanisms that underlie P. penicillatus pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: paecilomyces penicillatus; whole genome sequencing; PacBio; phylogeny; carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) paecilomyces penicillatus; whole genome sequencing; PacBio; phylogeny; carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Peng, J.; Sun, L.; Bonito, G.; Guo, Y.; Li, Y.; Fu, Y. Genome Sequencing of Paecilomyces Penicillatus Provides Insights into Its Phylogenetic Placement and Mycoparasitism Mechanisms on Morel Mushrooms. Pathogens 2020, 9, 834. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100834

AMA Style

Wang X, Peng J, Sun L, Bonito G, Guo Y, Li Y, Fu Y. Genome Sequencing of Paecilomyces Penicillatus Provides Insights into Its Phylogenetic Placement and Mycoparasitism Mechanisms on Morel Mushrooms. Pathogens. 2020; 9(10):834. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100834

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xinxin, Jingyu Peng, Lei Sun, Gregory Bonito, Yuxiu Guo, Yu Li, and Yongping Fu. 2020. "Genome Sequencing of Paecilomyces Penicillatus Provides Insights into Its Phylogenetic Placement and Mycoparasitism Mechanisms on Morel Mushrooms" Pathogens 9, no. 10: 834. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100834

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