Next Article in Journal
To What Extent Should We Rely on Antibiotics to Reduce High Gonococcal Prevalence? Historical Insights from Mass-Meningococcal Campaigns
Next Article in Special Issue
Papillomaviruses Go Retro
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Histone Deacetylase: Epigenetic Impact on Host Gene Expression
Previous Article in Special Issue
Surfactant Protein A Impairs Genital HPV16 Pseudovirus Infection by Innate Immune Cell Activation in A Murine Model
 
 
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
Review

HPV Oncoproteins and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: A Signature of Malignancy?

1
Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, AREA Science Park, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020133
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020

Abstract

:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins are critical for development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in HPV-induced cancers. These two viral oncoproteins interfere with a plethora of cellular pathways, including the regulation of cell cycle and the control of apoptosis, which are critical in maintaining normal cellular functions. E6 and E7 bind directly with certain components of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS), enabling them to manipulate a number of important cellular pathways. These activities are the means by which HPV establishes an environment supporting the normal viral life cycle, however in some instances they can also lead to the development of malignancy. In this review, we have discussed how E6 and E7 oncoproteins from alpha and beta HPV types interact with the components of the UPS, and how this interplay contributes to the development of cancer.

1. Introduction

Papillomaviridae is a diverse family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, approximately 50–60 nm in diameter that infect all homoeothermic vertebrates including humans [1,2]. Interestingly, recent studies have also detected members of Papillomaviridae in fish [3]. Currently, there are known to be approximately 200 different human papillomavirus (HPV) types, which are classified in five genera (alpha, beta, gamma, mu and nu) [4]. The Alphapapillomavirus species (α-HPVs) preferentially infect oral or anogenital mucosa in humans and primates [2]. The α-HPVs are further classified as low-risk (LR) (e.g., HPV-6 and HPV-11) or high-risk (HR) (e.g., HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-33), based on their association with human cancers [1]. HPV infections are usually fairly rapidly cleared by the immune system–from a few months up to two years from initial viral entry. However, in some instances, the infections are not neutralized by the immune system and they persist for long periods, which can result in the development of different types of neoplasia [5]. LR HPV types cause self-limiting benign anogenital warts and are only rarely found in squamous intraepithelial lesions, possibly as a part of multiple infections [6,7]. On the other hand, HR HPVs have been recognized as the main causative agent of cervical cancer, with more than 600,000 new cases annually worldwide [1,2,8,9]. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are associated with approximately 80% of cervical cancer globally, while the remaining 20% are linked to infection by other HR HPVs (e.g., HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, and HPV-58) [1,8,10]. HPVs also cause different types of anogenital cancers and were shown to be associated with 30–50% of head-and-neck cancers (HNC), particularly affecting the oropharynx, the base of the tongue, and the tonsils [1,11,12,13,14,15]. Intriguingly, HPV-16 is the predominant cancer-causing type associated with the vast majority of HPV-positive HNCs, with other HR types being detected only sporadically [13,14].
The Betapapillomavirus genus comprises approximately 50 HPV types and can be detected in normal and precancerous tissue, as well as in cancerous cutaneous epithelial tissue [2,16]. Although β-HPVs are primarily considered to be non-carcinogenic in the general population, some β-HPV types, such as HPV-5 and HPV-8, can represent a potential cancer risk in particular hypersensitive groups (e.g., in cases of severe immunodeficiency and in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients), where β-HPVs have been found in skin warts and in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (CSCC) [17,18]. In addition, these β-HPVs are also characterized as co-factors, which, in combination with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, have been thought to contribute to the development of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) [16]. This was later questioned and it was proposed that loss of T-cell immunity, rather than HPV activity, increased the risk of CSCC in immunosuppressed patients [19].
It is believed that HPVs infect cells in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelia, exposed as a result of small abrasions and micro-wounds [20,21]. In normal epithelium, epithelial cells in the basal layer are proliferative, while the differentiating cells in the suprabasal layers have exited the cell cycle. The HPV life cycle is dependent upon the replicative machinery of basal cells, which have the potential to proliferate. Following infection, HPV genomes are established as extrachromosomal elements or episomes. Transition to the late stage of HPV infection is followed by the expression of late genes and virion production [20,22]. Although, in the majority of cases, HPV infection is asymptomatic or transient, in some individuals the viral genomes become integrated into the host DNA, with much of the viral genome being lost, which results in a breakdown of the productive life-cycle of the virus. In addition, integration of viral DNA usually leads to the upregulated expression of the early viral genes E6 and E7, resulting in increased proliferation of the infected cell, which is a crucial step in further malignant development [15,23,24]. However, there may potentially be integration that does not lead to increased E6/E7 expression, therefore not inducing a carcinogenic effect.
The β-HPV types infect the basal layer of the squamous epithelium and hair follicle region, but the mechanism remains unknown [25,26] although some β-HPVs, like HPV38, show similarities with mucosal HR types and were associated with cancer development through E7/Rb protein interactions [27,28]. Interestingly, while the viral integration of HR HPV types is considered to be one of the key events in the process of tumor formation and in maintenance of the transformed phenotype, this appears not to be the case with β-HPVs [29]. Studies have demonstrated that the process of viral integration is absent during β-HPV infections and there is no requirement for continual oncoprotein expression to allow the persistence of the transformed phenotype during CSCC, indicating that β-HPVs contribute to the initial steps of tumor formation, but are not necessary for its continued maintenance [16,17,28,30,31].

2. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System

The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is the pathway responsible for the majority of intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. It controls the turnover of thousands of short-lived, regulatory, damaged and misfolded proteins, in order to regulate and maintain various cellular functions and cellular homeostasis [32]. It is a highly specific process and involves the addition of ubiquitin molecules to cellular substrates, which consequently leads to their modification via various cellular pathways. Fundamental cellular signaling pathways that are regulated by ubiquitination include cell cycle control, cell survival, cell proliferation, transcription, DNA repair, apoptosis, cellular metabolism, protein quality control, and membrane trafficking, as well as ubiquitination being very important in the immune response [33,34,35]. Ubiquitination, which involves a complex interplay of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), is an essential element of control by the UPS [36,37]. Ubiquitin is transferred to target proteins by the ubiquitination cascade: first, ubiquitin is activated and bound by an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, then transferred to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and, finally, transferred to lysine residues on the target protein by E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase [36,37]. So far, studies have identified two E1 activating enzymes, 40 E2 conjugating enzymes, around 800 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases and about 100 DUBs [38]. While all components of the UPS are of great importance for ubiquitination, individual ubiquitin-protein ligases may be valuable viral targets as they are involved in substrate recognition, and hence define the specificity of the system. They are categorized into two main families: the numerous Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger E3 ubiquitin ligases; and the less common Homologous to E6-associated protein C-Terminus (HECT) domain E3 ligases [39,40]. Polyubiquitin chains attached to substrates via lysine 48 will result in target protein degradation at the proteasome, while polyubiquitin chain attachment to other lysines will modulate proteasome-independent activities [41]. Proteins can also be mono-ubiquitinated, and this influences processes such as endocytosis and vesicular sorting [42]. On the other hand, ubiquitin molecules are cleaved from substrates by DUBs [43], which play essential roles in cellular processes as diverse as DNA replication, gene silencing, and endocytosis, ultimately affecting cell growth and oncogenesis.

3. HPV and the UPS

Many human pathologies, such as inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers are, directly or indirectly, promoted by the deregulation of the UPS [32,44]. An intriguing feature of both HPV oncoproteins, E6 and E7, is their ability to direct many of their cellular substrates for proteasome-mediated degradation [21,45]. Those interactions were either shown or confirmed using methods like co-immunoprecipitation, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein pull-down, affinity chromatography, Yeast Two Hybrid Assay and/or Tandem Affinity Purification and Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay. HPV E6 and E7 proteins appear to have evolved various strategies to make use of the ubiquitin system to support the viral lifecycle [45,46,47]. In particular, to avoid apoptosis, E6 mainly targets p53 while, by targeting the pRb, p107 and p130 pocket proteins, E7 induces cell cycle progression [48,49,50]. E6 proteins from high-risk [51] and low-risk [52,53] HPVs are able to bind p53, and it was further shown that this binding promotes the degradation of p53 via the ubiquitin pathway [48]. Interestingly, E6 proteins from both high- and low-risk HPVs were also shown to have the capacity to bind p53 but without inducing its degradation [54,55]. Furthermore, a recent study showed that in the case of beta HPVs, HPV17a, HPV-38, and HPV-92 E6s could bind and/or stabilize p53 [56].
E6 and E7 oncoproteins inactivate the majority of these cellular substrates by interacting with components of the UPS, ultimately inducing their degradation at the proteasome. Among the diverse components of the UPS, the interplay between E6/E7 and ubiquitin ligases is one of the crucial aspects in this process. The best characterized ubiquitin ligases used by the two oncoproteins are E6-associated protein (E6AP) and the cullin-2 ubiquitin ligase complex [57]. E6AP complexes with E6 and is involved in targeting p53 and some other targets, while E7 uses the cullin-2 ubiquitin ligase complex to target pRb [48,58]. To date, this interaction has only been shown for HPV16 E7 [57]. There are also additional ubiquitin ligases and other components of the UPS, which are directed for similar activities by the viral oncoproteins [46,59,60,61,62,63]. Furthermore, HPV oncoprotein interactions with the UPS are not only critical for successful viral replication, but are also necessary for maintenance of the transformed phenotype [15,45]. Studies have shown that interference with components of the UPS has a down-regulatory effect on the ability of HPV-transformed cells to proliferate indefinitely and to avoid apoptosis [46,47,62,63,64]. Therefore, a better understanding of the interplay between HPVs and the UPS would provide important novel information and greatly improve our understanding of the viral life cycle and the process of HPV-induced tumorigenesis.

4. HPV E6 Oncoprotein and the UPS

The HPV E6 oncoprotein contains around 150 amino acids and has two zinc fingers created by four CXXC motifs [65,66,67]. The integrity of these motifs is crucial for optimal oncoprotein function and they are highly conserved between all HPV E6 oncoproteins identified so far [68,69]. Recent studies have characterized the crystal structure of the intact E6 oncoprotein and also support the fact that E6 forms interactions with a large number of cellular substrates [67,70,71,72,73]. Recent studies have characterized the crystal structure of the intact HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein and specific domains of HPV-18 E6, HPV-51 E6 and Bovine Papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) E6, and these data all show that E6 forms interactions with a large number of cellular substrates [70,72,74]. HPV E6 complexes with these substrates through a number of conserved binding motifs. One of these is the so-called PDZ-binding motif (PBM), exclusively present on the C-terminus of HR HPV E6 oncoproteins, through which they bind to numerous PDZ-domain containing proteins [10,61]. Another conserved binding motif on E6 is the LXXLL binding motif. The most notable E6 targets with an LXXLL motif include E6AP, the preferred interacting partner of α-HPV E6 oncoproteins, and MAML-1, interacting with β-HPV E6 oncoproteins [75,76,77,78,79,80]. As mentioned above, E6 oncoproteins from both α- and β-HPV types interact with multiple components of the UPS; these interacting partners and their corresponding cellular functions are summarized in Table 1. By interacting with UPS components, HPV E6 oncoproteins can modulate various cellular functions, which are shown in Figure 1 and will be discussed in more detail below.

4.1. E6 Oncoprotein and Ubiquitin Ligases

HPV E6s interact with a number of cellular ubiquitin ligases. E6AP or UBE3A E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase is the principal ubiquitin ligase that associates with α-HPV E6 proteins. The interaction occurs via an LXXLL binding motif on E6 and leads to stimulation of E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity [81,82,83]. This association forms a stable complex between the viral oncoprotein and the ubiquitin ligase, which then targets a number of cellular substrates for proteasome-mediated degradation, with the p53 tumor suppressor being the most important cellular target [84]. This activity results in modulations of various cellular pathways to optimize the cellular environment for a productive viral life cycle, and in rare cases can initiate the process of carcinogenesis (Figure 1) [75,84,85,86]. Furthermore, a series of studies have also indicated that the general transcriptional effects of E6 are mostly dependent on the presence of E6AP [87]. This observation was further analyzed and supported by more recent studies, which demonstrated that the stability of α-HPV E6 oncoproteins was strictly dependent on the presence of E6AP [47]. Since E6AP was initially identified through its interaction with HR HPV E6-16 and HPV-18 proteins, it was originally thought that this association was exclusive to HR HPV mucosotropic types [84,85], but further studies showed that a LR HPV type 11 E6 could also complex with E6AP [83,88]. In addition, in vitro proteomic analysis and mass spectroscopy of cutaneous HPV cellular binding partners has shown that E6AP is a pulldown partner of E6 proteins from cutaneous-specific HPV-10 (an α-HPV) and HPV-24 (a β-HPV), indicating that β-HPV types can also interact with E6AP [82]. Furthermore, β-HPV types 24 and 38 E6 were also shown to form a complex with E6AP [77,81,82,88]. Interestingly, the interaction of E6AP with HPV-10 and HPV-24 E6 oncoproteins also increases their cellular protein levels indicating a more general dependence of all HPV types on E6AP for the maintenance of appropriate levels of E6 within the cell [82].
HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein was also shown to interact with HERC2, another putative HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase [46,89]. Interestingly, it was found that E6AP physically mediates HPV-16 E6 and HERC2 interaction, which, in turn, can modulate the ubiquitin ligase activity of E6AP [90]. Subsequently, it was also shown that HERC2 can bind to E6AP in the absence of E6 [91]. Follow-up studies have demonstrated that, besides HPV-16 E6, several other HPV E6 oncoproteins (from HPV types 33, 52, 18, 45, 6b and 17a), including HR and LR HPV types, as well E6 oncoproteins from certain cutaneous β-HPV types, also interact with HERC2 [77]. However, the role of HERC2 in the HPV life cycle, and its contribution to the process of HPV-induced malignancy have yet to be elucidated [90].
UBR5/EDD is another HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, alterations in which have been linked to carcinogenesis [92,93]. Studies have shown EDD to be bound strongly by HPV-18 E6, but only weakly by HPV-16 and HPV-11 E6, suggesting that the interaction between E6 and EDD may be restricted to HPV-18 E6. EDD protein alone can bind independently to both E6 and E6AP, and it is also involved in regulating the E6/E6AP complex [94]. It appears that EDD regulation of E6AP expression is independent of E6, but that loss of EDD stimulates the proteolytic activity of the E6/E6AP complex, significantly increasing the ability of the E6/E6-AP complex to direct the degradation of its cellular substrates, particularly p53. Thus fluctuations of EDD protein levels might directly affect the viral life cycle, and influence the development of HPV-induced malignancies [94]. In addition, it has also been shown that the association of EDD with HR HPV E6 is important in destabilizing TIP60; a histone acetyltransferase tumor suppressor, thus ultimately contributing to the development of HPV-induced malignancies [95].
Another E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to interact with HPV E6 oncoproteins is TRIM25, which is involved in immune system regulation [96,97]. Different HPVs E6 were shown to interact with TRIM25, including HR HPVs (HPV-16, -18, -33, and -52 E6), LR HPVs (HPV-6 and -11 E6) and cutaneous β-HPVs (HPV-5 and -8 E6), suggesting that HPV involvement in modulation of immune surveillance is conserved between different HPV types [98].
The BARD1 protein is a RING heterodimer that interacts with BRCA1, providing the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is required for BRCA1’s tumor suppressor function, as well as coordination of ubiquitination to maintain genomic stability [99,100]. BARD1 is a binding partner of HR HPV-16 and -18 E6, and it only interacts with these two HR HPV types, while no association was observed with LR HPV-11 E6 [101]. Furthermore, HR E6 oncoproteins were shown to interact directly with BRCA1 in both in vitro and in vivo conditions [102]. Interestingly, these interactions do not stimulate any degradation of either BRCA1 or BARD1, but the E6-induced increase in hTERT activity was considerably greater in the presence of BRCA1 than in its absence, suggesting that E6 possibly functions in part to antagonize the activity of BRCA1 [102]. However, it still remains to be clarified whether BRCA1 plays a role in the initiation of cervical cancer. In a recent study, Poirson et al. [38] using the Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay (GPCA), identified a number of cellular ubiquitin ligases or substrates with ubiquitin ligase activity as interacting partners of HPV E6 [38]. These studies assembled and screened a library of 590 cDNAs related to the UPS that covered about 50% of the human ubiquitination system, together with co-immunoprecipitation to confirm novel cell target protein-E6 interaction. Results indicated various new target proteins, including three RING-type Ub ligases MGRN1, LNX3 and LNX4 [38,103]. MGRN1 was shown to interact with E6 proteins from LR HPV-6 and HR HPV types 16, 18 and 33, as well as β-types HPV types 8 and 38. Interaction with LNX4 was restricted to HPV-16 E6, while LNX3 interacted with E6 oncoproteins from HR HPV types 16, 18 and 33 and β-HPV type 8 E6. The other ubiquitin ligases examined in this study were shown to exclusively bind HPV-16 E6, and they include ITCH, TRAF6, TRAF5, UBAC1, VHL, XIAP, RNF25 and RNF40 [38]. These ubiquitin ligases are associated with the regulation of several different cellular pathways, however, biochemical and mechanistic analyses to elucidate their roles in the viral life cycle and in HPV-mediated malignancies are still lacking [38,104].
Interestingly, there are also ubiquitin ligases that interact exclusively with β-cutaneous E6 oncoproteins, for example, HPV-17a and HPV-3 E6 which were reported to interact with 10 subunits (CNOT1, CNOT2, CNOT3, CNOT4, CNOT6L, CNOT7, CNOT9/RQCD1, CNOT10, C2orf29, and TNKS1BP1) of the Ccr4-Not multiprotein complex, which has been shown to be associated with various enzymatic activities including a ubiquitin ligase function [77,105]. White et al. detected those interactions by using an unbiased proteomic study including immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry [77]. In addition, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, UBR4/p600 was characterized as an interacting partner of cutaneous β-HPV-38 E6 [82], which has been shown to promote tumorigenesis in transgenic mouse models [28,106]. Moreover, this association was also observed but not validated in the proteomic analysis of another study [77]. Interaction between E6 and p600 was quite surprising, since p600 had been previously reported only as interacting partner of E7 [62,63], and more recent studies have shown that high risk E7 oncoproteins use p600 to target the PTPN14 tumor suppressor for proteasome-mediated degradation [59,107,108]. Therefore, it would be of a great interest to investigate the possible role of p600 in HPV-38-induced malignancy. Finally, a study by Holloway et al. [60] showed that β-HPV-5 E6 uses a specific and unique mechanism to target the proapoptotic factor BAK by recruiting the HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC1, which binds the apoptosis-promoting BAK protein in UV-damaged, E6-expressing cells. HERC1 specifically targets BAK in its active conformation, and only in the presence of E6, suggesting that HPV-5 E6 interacts with HERC1 to redirect its activity towards activated BAK, specifically to abrogate apoptosis of the infected cell and maintain the virus lifecycle [60].

4.2. E6 Oncoprotein and Deubiquitinating Enzymes

Apart from ubiquitin ligases, there are also other elements of the UPS, such as DUBs, that have been shown to interact with E6 oncoproteins from α- and β-HPV types. One of these is CYLD lysine 63 (K63) deubiquitinase, a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway, which was shown to form complexes with HR HPV-16 and -18 E6, although there was no evidence for direct interaction [109]. Nonetheless, a study demonstrated that CYLD polyubiquitination and degradation under hypoxic conditions was E6-mediated. This implies that this mechanism, which E6 employs under hypoxic conditions, is likely to contribute to an aggressive microenvironment in tumors caused by HPVs; it also suggests that prolonged hypoxia-induced NF-κB activation may be specific only to HPV-induced cancers, such as cervical and head-and-neck cancers [109].
HPV E6 oncoproteins were further reported to interact with two other DUBs: ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) enzymes, USP15 and USP46 [38]. USP15 was shown to be bound by E6 proteins from α-HPV types 16, 18, 33 and 6, and β-HPV types 8 and 38. Biochemically it was demonstrated that USP15 was involved in the regulation of HPV-16 E6 protein stability [98]. Furthermore, HPV E6 protein forms a ternary complex with USP15 and TRIM25, resulting in the inhibition of immune surveillance and antiviral responses, thereby exhibiting a direct involvement in immune system regulation [98]. Recently, it was demonstrated that HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 E6 bind to USP46, but that no interactions were seen with the LR HPV types [110]. Another study also showed that USP46 is required for the proliferation of HPV-transformed cancers and derived cancer cells, indicating that USP46 can be essential for the survival of HPV-transformed cancers [110].

4.3. E6 Oncoprotein and the Proteasome

HPV E6 oncoproteins from α- and β-types were also shown to bind directly to the proteasome. In vitro studies using GST-pull down assays have demonstrated that HR HPV-18 E6 interacts with several proteasomal subunits, including PSMC1, PSMC5, PSMD2, PSMC3, PSMC4, and PSMC2, while under the same conditions HR HPV-16 and LR HPV-11 E6 interacts with both subunits PSMD2 and PSMC1 [111]. Intriguingly, these interactions seem to be independent of E6AP, but the presence of E6AP does appear to be required for E6 to interact with PSMD4. This tripartite complex enhances the ubiquitination of PSMD4, an essential subunit of the 19S proteosome regulatory complex [111]. The HPV E6 oncoproteins from many HPV types can interact with diverse proteasome subunits, albeit they differ in their interaction profiles and their preferences for binding different proteasome subunits. These observations were supported by a series of analyses that demonstrated interactions between multiple α-HPV E6 oncoproteins and PSMA3, PSMC2, PSMC3, PSMD1, PSMD2, PSMD3, PSMD14, PSMD11, PSMD7, PSMC4, PSMD13, PSMD6, PSMD8, PSMB7, PSMB9 and PSME4 proteasomal subunits, while a panel of β-HPV E6 oncoproteins interacted only with a few proteasomal subunits, including PSMA3, PSMC2, PSMD1, PSMD2, PSMD3, PSMD11, and PSMD13 [77,112,113]. Those analyses included different methods, including affinity chromatography [113], immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry [77], as well as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system and tandem affinity purification [112]. Hence, E6 proteins from α- or β-HPVs exhibit different affinities of binding to various proteasomal subunits [77]. These observations were additionally confirmed by several other studies [90,113,114,115,116,117], suggesting the importance of the close association of E6 with the proteasome, probably through E6AP which directly connects E6 to the proteasome [77].

5. HPV E7 Oncoprotein and the UPS

HPV E7 oncoprotein is a small acidic protein of approximately 100 amino acid residues, having no significant sequence similarities to any cellular protein, except for the LXCXE motif. The amino terminus contains two regions similar to the E1A adenovirus proteins: the conserved region 2 (CR2) and part of CR1 [65]. The E7 oncoprotein also contains CR3, a zinc-binding site formed by two CXXC domains that function as a dimerization domain [118]. The CR3 domains are similar to those of the HPV E6 protein, suggesting that a genetic duplication may have occurred early in HPV evolution [119]. E7 has, in addition, sequences related to those of simian vacuolating virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 T), all contributing to the transforming activities of HR HPV E7 oncoproteins [120,121,122,123].
The main function of the HPV E7 oncoprotein is to maintain the infected differentiating cell in a DNA replication-competent state, which it does in part, by targeting the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb), a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, which controls the G1 to S-phase transition [124]. E7 also binds to the pRb-related members of the pocket protein family, p107 and p130, which assists in driving the cell cycle of the differentiating HPV-infected epithelial cell into an S-phase-like state, an environment suitable for replication of the viral genome [125]. In order to complete these activities, E7 forms interactions with ubiquitin ligases, which are essential elements of the UPS. In addition, E7 was shown to complex with other components of the UPS, and these interactions appeared to be important either for the stability of the oncoprotein or for its role in regulation and modulation of many cellular processes, some of which are summarized in Table 2 and Figure 2.

5.1. E7 Oncoprotein and Ubiquitin Ligases

A large number of ubiquitin ligases have been reported to be HPV E7 interactors, a principal one being cullin 2 (CUL2), a core component of the cullin-RING-based ESC (ElonginBC–Cullin–SOCS-box) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex [126,127]. This interaction occurs via the E7 CR1 domain, as well as through its C-terminal sequences, and drives cell cycle progression by degradation of pRb and upregulation of CDK2 and cyclins A and E [58,128]. In fact, interactions between E7 and CUL2 complex were validated for 17 different HPV types from both the α- (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -6b, -55, -74, -2a, and -57) and β-genus (HPV-8, -25, -98, -17a, -38, -76, and -92) HPV types. Furthermore, it has been shown that HPV-16 E7-expressing cells require ZER1 (or Zyg11BL), a substrate-specificity factor for a CUL2-RING ubiquitin ligase [57,129]. ZER1 is required for HPV-16 E7 to bind CUL2 and destabilize pRb, suggesting that HPV-16 E7 exploits the CUL2–ZER1 complex for pRb degradation. Interestingly, the ZER1 association appears to be specific only to HPV-16 E7. This may be related to the fact that ZER1 contains BC and a CUL2-binding site and acts in a complex with elongin B, elongin C, and CUL2, while HPV-16 E7 interacts with CUL2, and elongin C is required specifically for the binding of ZER1 to CUL2 [58,130]. Thus, all three proteins interconnect through a number of possible protein interactions.
E7 oncoprotein, similarly to E6, generally has a short half-life, approximately one hour [124]. It has been shown that E7 is ubiquitinated by the UBE2L3/Cullin 1 (CUL1) complex, followed by degradation at the proteasome and, to date, this has been observed only with HPV-16 E7 (122–124). CUL1 is a core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SKP1-CUL1-F-box proteins (SCF) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which were previously described not only to degrade E7 itself, but also to cause destabilization and degradation of the p130 pocket protein through its interactions with E7 [131,132,133,134,135]. Therefore, E7 interacts with the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex containing CUL1 and Skp2 and can be ubiquitinated by the CUL1-containing ubiquitin ligase in vitro and in vivo [131]. Finally, the half-life of E7 was found to be significantly longer in Skp2 (-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) than in wild-type MEFs. Interactions were also observed between cullin 3 (CUL3) and E7 from HPV types 16, 18, 6b, 55 and 8, with a suggestion that the E7 and CUL3 may not interact directly, but probably via some BTB proteins [57]. In addition, E7 protein turnover is shown to be driven by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and the process itself is regulated by the two E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UbcH7 and UBE2A [38,131]. While there are no solid reports about UbcH7 functions, it is known that UBE2A plays roles in a number of different biological processes and its binding partners include KCMF1 and UBR4/p600 [136]. Their roles in HPV E7 modulations of various cellular functions will be discussed in more detail further in the review.
The HPV-16 E7 protein binds to eleven POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex) domain-containing proteins (BTBD15, KCTD13, NAC-1/NACC-1, TNFAIP1, SHKBP1, ZBTB9, ZBTB20, ZBTB32, ZBTB42, ZBTB43 and ZBTB48) [38]. The functions of these BTB proteins are largely unknown, and a number of different functional roles have been reported for the POZ/BTB domain, including transcriptional repression [137,138], cytoskeleton regulation [139,140], and protein ubiquitination [141,142,143]. POZ/BTB proteins interact with the CUL3-SCF-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, allowing the POZ/BTB domain to recruit substrate molecules for ubiquitination by the CUL3 component of the SCF-like complex [126,144,145]. Furthermore, some BTB domain-containing proteins have been identified as substrate adaptors of certain CUL3-RING Ub ligases, such as tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) and the homologous KCTD13 [146]. In addition, some BTB proteins also have a C2H2-type zinc finger (ZBTB9, ZBTB32, BTBD15, ZBTB48), which is frequently found in transcriptional activators, and this is consistent with E7 being a major transcriptional regulator [147]. The majority of these UPS proteins have only been characterized as E7 interacting partners, and importantly, the biological consequences of these interactions have yet to be investigated (Table 2). For example, NAC-1 is a POZ/BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor protein related to tumor recurrence, and is essential for tumor growth and survival. The interaction between the BTB/POZ domains of NAC-1 is critical for tumor cell proliferation [143,148]. NAC-1 has been reported to be highly expressed in a number of human carcinomas, and, especially interestingly, NAC-1 is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells from different oral lesions [149,150]. Furthermore, HPV infection induces cytokine production, with TNF-α and related cytokines inducing various signaling pathways leading to growth arrest, proliferation, or cell death, but can also cause the expression of TNFAIP1, another POZ/BTB domain-containing protein. HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was found to bind TNFAIP1, leading to TNF-α-mediated apoptosis [151].
Among the binding partners that interact with the E7 CR1 is p600 (ubiquitin N-recognin domain-containing E3 ligase 4) [57,62], a unique 600-kDa retinoblastoma-associated factor that regulates caspase-mediated programmed cell death known as anoikis [63,107]. The ability of E7 to associate with p600 is independent of its binding to the pocket proteins and occurs via the N-terminal domain of E7, thus contributing independently to cellular transformation [62]. Reduction of p600 protein levels results in a marked decrease in anchorage-independent growth both in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cancer cells, suggesting that p600 is normally involved in regulating anchorage-independent growth and cellular transformation. Furthermore, p600 is also involved in the HR E7-induced proteasome-mediated degradation of PTPN14 in cells derived from cervical tumors [57,59], and this process is independent of cullin-1 or cullin-2 [57,59]. In support of this, later studies have suggested the requirement for p600 in various processes involving viral life cycle modulation and the development of malignancy, through its interaction with HPV-16 and HPV-18 E7 [57,62]. In addition, p600 has been shown to bind various α- (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -6b, -55, -74, -2a, and -57) and β-genus (HPV-8, -25, -17a, -38, and -92) HPV E7 oncoproteins [57]. Since it is clear that p600 binds to E7 proteins from numerous HPV E7 types, including benign HPV types, this interaction may also have major importance for the virus life cycle. Furthermore, p600 can interact with KCMF1 in the absence of E7, suggesting the possibility that E7, KCMF1, and p600 form part of a larger complex in cells. KCMF1 is a RING E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and promotes ubiquitination [136]. Furthermore, the interaction between E7 and KCMF1 is also highly conserved across different HPV types, including interactions with various α- (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -6b, -55, -74, -2a, and -57) and β-genus (HPV-8, -25, -17a, -38, and -92) HPV E7 oncoproteins [57].
Moreover, HPV E7 was found to interact with TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases associating with the TNF receptor superfamily, and contributing to the activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [152]. TRAF2, an anti-apoptotic protein and an essential constituent of several E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases complexes, was shown to interact with HR HPV types 16, 18 and 33 E7 oncoproteins and also with β-HPV types 8 and 38, while no interaction was detected for LR HPV E7 oncoproteins [38]. A later study determined that HPV-16-infected keratinocytes exhibited an increase in TRAF2 expression and, more specifically, TNF receptor profile changes from type 1 to type 2, as well as the cells being more resistant to TNF-α induction of apoptosis [153]. This is probably responsible, at least in part, for the switch from an apoptotic to a proliferative fate, seen in HPV-16 infected keratinocytes [153]. Conversely, a unique adaptor protein and ubiquitin ligase, TRAF3, was found to interact only with HR HPV types 16 and 18 E7 oncoproteins [38]. A further study showed that increased expression of TRAF3 enhances p53 and pRb expression and decreases HPV E6 expression in HPV-positive cells, thus inhibiting cell growth, colony formation, migration, and enhances susceptibility to TNF-α and cisplatin-induced cell death [154]. These findings suggest that TRAF3 might have a tumor suppressor role, modulating established cancer hallmarks in HPV-infected cells [154]. Although interactions of TRAF4 and TRAF5 with E7 were detected, their biological effects on the host cell are yet to be studied [38]. TRAF5 is also an interacting partner of HR E6, as well as interacting with the E7 of all HPV types examined, including HPV-16, -18, -33, -6, -8 and -38.
Some other ubiquitin ligases that are involved in pathogen recognition and which associate with E7 are members of the TRIM family [38]. This comprises a number of proteins involved in many biological and antiviral processes, and E7 oncoproteins from many different HPV types interact with TRIM9, TRIM22, TRIM32 and TRIM72; some of these interactions have been further characterized and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, including that between E7 and TRIM32 [38]. TRIM32 is a RING finger Ub ligase implicated in innate immunity and has potential to bind E7 from HR α-HPV-16, -18 and -33, LR HPV-6, and also β-HPV types 8 and 38. TRIM72 has demonstrated the potential to bind E7 oncoproteins from certain HR α-HPVs (HPV-16, -18, and -33) and β-HPVs (HPV-8, and -38), but not a LR HPV-6 E7 oncoprotein [38]. Only TRIM22 has been fully characterized and seems to be downregulated in HPV-16- and HPV-18-positive cervical cancers [155].
Additional interactions have been identified between the E7 oncoproteins of LR HPV-6, HR HPV-16, -18, -33, and β-HPV-8 and -38 and RING ubiquitin ligase NEURL1, while only HR (HPV-16, -18 and -33) and LR (HPV-6) E7 binds to another RING ubiquitin ligase RNF135 [38]. However, the consequences of these interactions have yet to be investigated. Furthermore, interactions between E7 oncoproteins and ubiquitin ligase SH3RF1 were detected via GPCA assay, but have not been additionally confirmed by other interaction assays (34).

5.2. E7 Oncoprotein and Deubiquitinating Enzymes

E7 oncoprotein also interacts with some DUBs; amongst these are USP26 and USP33, which are ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases known to be involved in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic degradation of proteins via the 26S proteasome. Both USP26 and USP33 were identified as interactors of HR HPVs (HPV-16, -18 and -33), but not of β-HPVs (HPV-8 and -38), and have not so far been investigated in detail [38]. The USP29, a DUB implicated in thiol-dependent hydrolysis, also interacts with HR HPV-16, -18 and -33 E7 oncoproteins [38].
USP11, which belongs to a class of DUB that cleaves polyubiquitin chains, and thus inhibits the proteasome-mediated degradation of target proteins, is on the other hand, the only USP component so far shown to be bound by E7. USP11 increases the steady state levels of HPV-16 E7 by attenuating E7 ubiquitination and degradation, thus protecting E7 as well as influencing its effects on cell proliferation [156]. This interaction results in an increased stability and prolonged half-life of E7, but also suggests its requirement for modulation of downstream target proteins, subsequently affecting the biological function of E7, as well as abrogating its contribution to cell transformation.

5.3. E7 Oncoprotein and Proteasome Components

Recent studies have shown that the levels of E7 protein in cancer cells are regulated by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis via the 26S proteasome [132,135,157]. Furthermore, E7 seems to interact with the 26S proteasome subunit 4 (S4) ATPase via E7’s carboxyl-terminal zinc binding motif; the interaction thus being independent of the E7-pRb interaction. Therefore, E7 might target pRb for degradation by directly interacting with the 26S proteasome through S4. Moreover, E7 increases the ATPase activity of S4 and this same pathway was shown to be used by E7 in degrading pRb, with tumorigenic effect [135,157].

6. Concluding Remarks

The interplay between E6/E7 oncoproteins from various HPV types and the UPS has been shown to be one of the critical strategies used by these viruses to create an optimal environment in which they can successfully replicate. However, this process, which is generally highly regulated and controlled through the various stages of the viral life cycle, can in some instances be perturbed, initially causing an imbalance in cellular homeostasis, and ultimately resulting in the transformed cell phenotype. As can be seen from Figure 1 and Figure 2, by interacting with the components of the UPS, viral oncoproteins modulate numerous cellular functions, which are also necessary for initiation and/or maintenance of the transformed cellular phenotype. Interestingly, of the large number of α- and β-HPV types that infect humans, only a small proportion are actually associated with human malignancies. Intriguingly, as indicated in Table 1 and Table 2, it appears that E6/E7 oncoproteins from HR HPVs, which are associated with various human cancers at different anatomical sites, have been reported to interact with a vast number of the UPS components, including a number of ubiquitin ligases. In contrast, E6/E7 from β-HPVs, which are characterized as co-factors in causing skin cancers under specific conditions, interact with significantly fewer components of the UPS, while E6/E7 from LR types interact with only a few components of the UPS. All of this suggests that HR HPVs may be more efficiently adapted to evade the immune system and maintain persistent infection in the surrounding environment, than LR and β-HPV types, under permissive and regulated conditions. Consequently, when these conditions are disordered and the viral oncoproteins become unregulated, this is reflected in their interactions and modulation of the UPS, and can in turn lead to the formation of a more malignant phenotype, which is a hallmark of persistent HR HPV infections. Therefore, a better understanding of the interplay between the UPS and the viral oncoproteins is a pressing need for providing a more comprehensive network of the cellular pathways affected in the process of carcinogenesis in general, and HPV-induced carcinogenesis in particular. Furthermore, the development of novel strategies to block the viral perturbation of these UPS components should be one of the major aims in designing sorely-needed therapies against HPV-induced malignancies.

Author Contributions

L.L. and A.Đ. have equally contributed to the writing, discussion and preparation of the manuscript. M.T., J.S., N.E.B.S., M.G. and L.B. contributed to the writing of the manuscript and discussion. V.T. coordinated the preparation, discussion, literature search, and contributed to the writing of the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

VT gratefully acknowledges research support from an ICGEB Early Career Return Grant (Grant no. CRP/16/018) and the Croatian Science Foundation (Grant no. 2246). LB gratefully acknowledges research support from the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro Grant No. 18578.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. International Agency for Cancer Research. IARC Monographs 100B—Human Papillomaviruses 2012; International Agency for Cancer Research, IARC Press: Lyon, France, 2005. [Google Scholar]
  2. King, A.M.Q.; Adams, M.J.; Carstens, E.B.; Lefkowitz, E.J. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Virus Taxon. 2005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. López-Bueno, A.; Mavian, C.; Labella, A.M.; Castro, D.; Borrego, J.J.; Alcami, A.; Alejo, A. Concurrence of Iridovirus, Polyomavirus, and a Unique Member of a New Group of Fish Papillomaviruses in Lymphocystis Disease-Affected Gilthead Sea Bream. J. Virol. 2016, 90, 8768–8779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  4. de Villiers, E.-M.; Burk, R.D.; Bernard, H.-U.; Chen, Z.; van Doorslaer, K.; zur Hausen, H. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology 2010, 401, 70–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  5. zur Hausen, H. Papillomaviruses and cancer: From basic studies to clinical application. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2002, 2, 342–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Boda, D.; Docea, A.O.; Calina, D.; Ilie, M.A.; Caruntu, C.; Zurac, S.; Mamoulakis, C. Human papilloma virus: Apprehending the link with carcinogenesis and unveiling new research avenues (Review). Int. J. Oncol. 2018, 52, 637–655. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  7. Bouvard, V.; Baan, R.; Straif, K.; Grosse, Y.; Secretan, B.; El Ghissassi, F.; Cogliano, V. A review of human carcinogens-Part B: Biological agents. Lancet Oncol. 2009, 10, 321–322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. De Villiers, E.M.; Fauquet, C.; Broker, T.R.; Bernard, H.U.; Zur Hausen, H. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology 2004, 324, 17–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  9. Burd, E. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancerBurd E (2003) Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2003, 16, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  10. Thomas, M.; Narayan, N.; Pim, D.; Tomaić, V.; Massimi, P.; Nagasaka, K.; Banks, L. Human papillomaviruses, cervical cancer and cell polarity. Oncogene 2008, 27, 7018–7030. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  11. Syrjänen, K.J.; Pyrhönen, S.; Syrjänen, S.M.; Lamberg, M.A. Immunohistochemical demonstration of human papilloma virus (HPV) antigens in oral squamous cell lesions. Fed. Proc. 1985, 44, 147–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Spence, T.; Bruce, J.; Yip, K.W.; Liu, F.F. HPV associated head and neck cancer. Cancers 2016, 8, 75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  13. Chaturvedi, A.K.; Engels, E.A.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Hernandez, B.Y.; Xiao, W.; Kim, E.; Liu, L. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J. Clin. Oncol. 2011, 29, 4294–4301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Combes, J.-D.; Chen, A.A.; Franceschi, S. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cancer of the oropharynx by gender. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2014, 23, 2954–2958. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  15. Tomaić, V. Functional Roles of E6 and E7 Oncoproteins in HPV-Induced Malignancies at Diverse Anatomical Sites. Cancers 2016, 8, 95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  16. Tommasino, M. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses. Virus Res. 2017, 231, 128–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Egawa, N.; Doorbar, J. The low-risk papillomaviruses. Virus Res. 2017, 231, 119–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Howley, P.M.; Pfister, H.J. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer. Virology 2015, 479–480, 290–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  19. Strickley, J.D.; Messerschmidt, J.L.; Awad, M.E.; Li, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Ha, D.T.; Nazarian, R.M. Immunity to commensal papillomaviruses protects against skin cancer. Nature 2019, 575, 519–522. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Doorbar, J. The papillomavirus life cycle. J. Clin. Virol. 2005, 32 (Suppl. S1), S7–S15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Moody, C.A.; Laimins, L.A. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins: Pathways to transformation. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2010, 10, 550–560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Morgan, E.L.; Wasson, C.W.; Hanson, L.; Kealy, D.; Pentland, I.; McGuire, V.; Roberts, S. STAT3 activation by E6 is essential for the differentiation-dependent HPV18 life cycle. PLoS Pathog. 2018, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Snijders, P.J.F.; Steenbergen, R.D.M.; Heideman, D.A.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M. HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis: Concepts and clinical implications. J. Pathol. 2006, 208, 152–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Steben, M.; Duarte-Franco, E. Human papillomavirus infection: Epidemiology and pathophysiology. Gynecol. Oncol. 2007, 107, S2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Boxman, I.L.A.; Berkhout, R.J.M.; HCMulder, L.; Wolkers, M.C.; Bavinck, J.N.B.; Vermeer, B.J.; ter Schegget, J. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in plucked hairs from renal transplant recipients and healthy volunteers. J. Investig. Dermatol. 1997, 108, 712–715. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  26. Feltkamp, M.C.W.; de Koning, M.N.C.; Bavinck, J.N.B.; ter Schegget, J. Betapapillomaviruses: Innocent bystanders or causes of skin cancer. J. Clin. Virol. 2008, 43, 353–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Caldeira, S.; Zehbe, I.; Accardi, R.; Malanchi, I.; Dong, W.; Giarrè, M.; Tommasino, M. The E6 and E7 Proteins of the Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Type 38 Display Transforming Properties. J. Virol. 2003, 77, 2195–2206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  28. Viarisio, D.; Mueller-Decker, K.; Kloz, U.; Aengeneyndt, B.; Kopp-Schneider, A.; Gröne, H.-J.; Tommasino, M. E6 and E7 from beta HPV38 cooperate with ultraviolet light in the development of actinic keratosis-like lesions and squamous cell carcinoma in mice. PLoS Pathog. 2011, 7, e1002125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Quint, K.D.; Genders, R.E.; de Koning, M.N.C.; Borgogna, C.; Gariglio, M.; Bouwes Bavinck, J.N.; Feltkamp, M.C. Human Beta-papillomavirus infection and keratinocyte carcinomas. J. Pathol. 2015, 235, 342–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Meyers, J.M.; Munger, K. The viral etiology of skin cancer. J. Investig. Dermatol. 2014, 134, E29–E32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  31. Viarisio, D.; Müller-Decker, K.; Accardi, R.; Robitaille, A.; Dürst, M.; Beer, K.; Voegele, C. Beta HPV38 oncoproteins act with a hit-and-run mechanism in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PLoS Pathog. 2018, 14, e1006783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Hershko, A.; Ciechanover, A. The ubiquitin system. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1997, 425–479. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Ciechanover, A. Intracellular protein degradation: From a Vague Idea, through the lysosome and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and onto human diseases and drug targeting (Nobel Lecture). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 5944–5967. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Tanaka, K. The proteasome: Overview of structure and functions. Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B 2009, 85, 12–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  35. Rousseau, A.; Bertolotti, A. Regulation of proteasome assembly and activity in health and disease. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2018, 19, 697–712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  36. Saeki, Y. Ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. J. Biochem. 2017, 161, 113–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Finley, D. Recognition and processing of ubiquitin-protein conjugates by the proteasome. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2009, 78, 477–513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  38. Poirson, J.; Biquand, E.; Straub, M.-L.; Cassonnet, P.; Nominé, Y.; Jones, L.; Demeret, C. Mapping the interactome of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins with the ubiquitin-proteasome system. FEBS J. 2017, 284, 3171–3201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  39. Ingham, R.J.; Gish, G.; Pawson, T. The Nedd4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases: Functional diversity within a common modular architecture. Oncogene 2004, 23, 1972–1984. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  40. Li, W.; Bengtson, M.H.; Ulbrich, A.; Matsuda, A.; Reddy, V.A.; Orth, A.; Joazeiro, C.A. Genome-wide and functional annotation of human E3 ubiquitin ligases identifies MULAN, a mitochondrial E3 that regulates the organelle’s dynamics and signaling. PLoS ONE 2008, 3, e1487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Li, W.; Ye, Y. Polyubiquitin chains: Functions, structures, and mechanisms. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2008, 65, 2397–2406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  42. Rotin, D.; Kumar, S. Physiological functions of the HECT family of ubiquitin ligases. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2009, 10, 398–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Wing, S.S. Deubiquitinating enzymes-the importance of driving in reverse along the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2003, 35, 590–605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Tomaić, V.; Banks, L. Angelman syndrome-associated ubiquitin ligase UBE3A/E6AP mutants interfere with the proteolytic activity of the proteasome. Cell Death Dis. 2015, 6, e1625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Lou, Z.; Wang, S. E3 ubiquitin ligases and human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. J. Int. Med. Res. 2014, 42, 247–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  46. Vos, R.M.; Altreuter, J.; White, E.A.; Howley, P.M. The Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase USP15 Regulates Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Protein Stability. J. Virol. 2009, 83, 8885–8892. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  47. Tomaić, V.; Pim, D.; Banks, L. The stability of the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein is E6AP dependent. Virology 2009, 393, 7–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  48. Scheffner, M.; Werness, B.A.; Huibregtse, J.M.; Levine, A.J.; Howley, P.M. The E6 oncoprotein encoded by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 promotes the degradation of p53. Cell 1990, 63, 1129–1136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Helt, A.-M.; Funk, J.O.; Galloway, D.A. Inactivation of both the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor and p21 by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein Is Necessary To Inhibit Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Epithelial Cells. J. Virol. 2002, 76, 10559–10568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  50. Münger, K.; Werness, B.A.; Dyson, N.; Phelps, W.C.; Harlow, E.; Howley, P.M. Complex formation of human papillomavirus E7 proteins with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. EMBO J. 1989, 8, 4099–4105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Werness, B.A.; Levine, A.J.; Howley, P.M. Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53. Science 1990, 248, 76–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Pietsch, E.C.; Murphy, M.E. Low risk HPV-E6 traps p53 in the cytoplasm and induces p53-dependent apoptosis. Cancer Biol. Ther. 2008, 7, 1916–1918. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  53. Oh, S.T.; Longworth, M.S.; Laimins, L.A. Roles of the E6 and E7 Proteins in the Life Cycle of Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 11. J. Virol. 2004, 78, 2620–2626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  54. Crook, T.; Tidy, J.A.; Vousden, K.H. Degradation of p53 can be targeted by HPV E6 sequences distinct from those required for p53 binding and trans-activation. Cell 1991, 67, 547–556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Lechner, M.S.; Laimins, L.A. Inhibition of p53 DNA binding by human papillomavirus E6 proteins. J. Virol. 1994, 68, 4262–4273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  56. White, E.A.; Walther, J.; Javanbakht, H.; Howley, P.M. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes. J. Virol. 2014, 88, 8201–8212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  57. White, E.A.; Sowa, M.E.; Tan, M.J.A.; Jeudy, S.; Hayes, S.D.; Santha, S.; Münger, K.; Harper, J.W.; Howley, P.M. Systematic identification of interactions between host cell proteins and E7 oncoproteins from diverse human papillomaviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, E260–E267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  58. Huh, K.; Zhou, X.; Hayakawa, H.; Cho, J.-Y.; Libermann, T.A.; Jin, J.; Harper, J.W.; Munger, K. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein Associates with the Cullin 2 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex, Which Contributes to Degradation of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor. J. Virol. 2007, 81, 9737–9747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  59. Szalmás, A.; Tomaić, V.; Basukala, O.; Massimi, P.; Mittal, S.; Kónya, J.; Banks, L. The PTPN14 Tumor Suppressor Is a Degradation Target of Human Papillomavirus E7. J. Virol. 2017, 91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  60. Holloway, A.; Simmonds, M.; Azad, A.; Fox, J.L.; Storey, A. Resistance to UV-induced apoptosis by β-HPV5 E6 involves targeting of activated BAK for proteolysis by recruitment of the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase. Int. J. Cancer 2015, 136, 2831–2843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Bennett Saidu, N.E.; Filić, V.; Thomas, M.; Sarabia-Vega, V.; Ðukić, A.; Miljković, F.; Banks, L.; Tomaić, V. PDZ Domain-Containing Protein NHERF-2 is a Novel Target of Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18. J. Virol. 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Huh, K.-W.; DeMasi, J.; Ogawa, H.; Nakatani, Y.; Howley, P.M.; Münger, K. Association of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein with the 600-kDa retinoblastoma protein-associated factor, p600. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 11492–11497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  63. DeMasi, J.; Huh, K.-W.; Nakatani, Y.; Münger, K.; Howley, P.M. Bovine papillomavirus E7 transformation function correlates with cellular p600 protein binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 11486–11491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  64. Grm, H.S.; Banks, L. Degradation of hDlg and MAGIs by human papillomavirus E6 is E6-AP-independent. J. Gen. Virol. 2004, 85, 2815–2819. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Cole, S.T.; Danos, O. Nucleotide sequence and comparative analysis of the human papillomavirus type 18 genome. Phylogeny of papillomaviruses and repeated structure of the E6 and E7 gene products. J. Mol. Biol. 1987, 193, 599–608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Barbosa, M.S.; Wettstein, F.O. Transcription of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus early region and identification of two E6 polypeptides in COS-7 cells. J. Virol. 1987, 61, 2938–2942. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  67. Martinez-Zapien, D.; Ruiz, F.X.; Poirson, J.; Mitschler, A.; Ramirez, J.; Forster, A.; Cousido-Siah, A.; Masson, M.; Pol, S.V.; Podjarny, A.; et al. Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53. Nature 2016, 529, 541–545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  68. Kanda, T.; Watanabe, S.; Zanma, S.; Sato, H.; Furuno, A.; Yoshiike, K. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 proteins with glycine substitution for cysteine in the metal-binding motif. Virology 1991, 185, 536–543. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Sherman, L.; Schlegel, R. Serum- and calcium-induced differentiation of human keratinocytes is inhibited by the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16. J. Virol. 1996, 70, 3269–3279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  70. Nominé, Y.; Masson, M.; Charbonnier, S.; Zanier, K.; Ristriani, T.; Deryckère, F.; Sibler, A.P.; Desplancq, D.; Atkinson, R.A.; Weiss, E.; et al. Structural and functional analysis of E6 oncoprotein: Insights in the molecular pathways of human papillomavirus-mediated pathogenesis. Mol. Cell. 2006, 21, 665–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Zanier, K.; Ruhlmann, C.; Melin, F.; Masson, M.; Ould M’hamed Ould Sidi, A.; Bernard, X.; Fischer, B.; Brino, L.; Ristriani, T.; Rybin, V.; et al. E6 proteins from diverse papillomaviruses self-associate both in vitro and in vivo. J Mol Biol 2010, 396, 90–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  72. Zanier, K.; Charbonnier, S.; Sidi, A.O.M.O.; McEwen, A.G.; Ferrario, M.G.; Poussin-Courmontagne, P.; Cura, V.; Brimer, N.; Babah, K.O.; Ansari, T.; et al. Structural basis for hijacking of cellular LxxLL motifs by papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins. Science 2013, 339, 694–698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  73. Pim, D.; Banks, L. Interaction of viral oncoproteins with cellular target molecules: Infection with high-risk vs low-risk human papillomaviruses. APMIS 2010, 118, 471–493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Zhang, Y.; Dasgupta, J.; Ma, R.Z.; Banks, L.; Thomas, M.; Chen, X.S. Structures of a human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 polypeptide bound to MAGUK proteins: Mechanisms of targeting tumor suppressors by a high-risk HPV oncoprotein. J. Virol. 2007, 81, 3618–3626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  75. Huibregtse, J.M.; Scheffner, M.; Howley, P.M. Localization of the E6-AP regions that direct human papillomavirus E6 binding, association with p53, and ubiquitination of associated proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1993, 13, 4918–4927. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  76. Elston, R.C.; Napthine, S.; Doorbar, J. The identification of a conserved binding motif within human papillomavirus type 16 E6 binding peptides, E6AP and E6BP. J. Gen. Virol. 1998, 79 Pt 2, 371–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  77. White, E.A.; Kramer, R.E.; Tan, M.J.A.; Hayes, S.D.; Harper, J.W.; Howley, P.M. Comprehensive Analysis of Host Cellular Interactions with Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins Identifies New E6 Binding Partners and Reflects Viral Diversity. J. Virol. 2012, 86, 13174–13186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  78. Brimer, N.; Lyons, C.; Wallberg, A.E.; Vande Pol, S.B. Cutaneous papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with MAML1 to repress transactivation and NOTCH signaling. Oncogene 2012, 31, 4639–4646. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  79. Tan, M.J.A.; White, E.A.; Sowa, M.E.; Harper, J.W.; Aster, J.C.; Howley, P.M. Cutaneous β-human papillomavirus E6 proteins bind Mastermind-like coactivators and repress Notch signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, E1473–E1480. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  80. Meyers, J.M.; Spangle, J.M.; Munger, K. The human papillomavirus type 8 E6 protein interferes with NOTCH activation during keratinocyte differentiation. J. Virol. 2013, 87, 4762–4767. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  81. Brimer, N.; Drews, C.M.; Vande Pol, S.B. Association of papillomavirus E6 proteins with either MAML1 or E6AP clusters E6 proteins by structure, function, and evolutionary relatedness. PLoS Pathog. 2017, 13, e1006781. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Thomas, M.; Tomaić, V.; Pim, D.; Myers, M.P.; Tommasino, M.; Banks, L. Interactions between E6AP and E6 proteins from alpha and beta HPV types. Virology 2013, 435, 357–362. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  83. Brimer, N.; Lyons, C.; Vande Pol, S.B. Association of E6AP (UBE3A) with human papillomavirus type 11 E6 protein. Virology 2007, 358, 303–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  84. Scheffner, M.; Huibregtse, J.M.; Vierstra, R.D.; Howley, P.M. The HPV-16 E6 and E6-AP complex functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase in the ubiquitination of p53. Cell 1993, 75, 495–505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Huibregtse, J.M.; Scheffner, M.; Howley, P.M. Cloning and expression of the cDNA for E6-AP, a protein that mediates the interaction of the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein with p53. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1993, 13, 775–784. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  86. Talis, A.L.; Huibregtse, J.M.; Howley, P.M. The role of E6AP in the regulation of p53 protein levels in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1998, 273, 6439–6445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  87. Kelley, M.L.; Keiger, K.E.; Lee, C.J.; Huibregtse, J.M. The global transcriptional effects of the human papillomavirus E6 protein in cervical carcinoma cell lines are mediated by the E6AP ubiquitin ligase. J. Virol. 2005, 79, 3737–3747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  88. Storey, A.; Thomas, M.; Kalita, A.; Harwood, C.; Gardiol, D.; Mantovani, F.; Breuer, J.; Leigh, I.M.; Matlashewski, G.; Banks, L. Role of a p53 polymorphism in the development of human papillomavirus-associated cancer. Nature 1998, 393, 229–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Ji, Y.; Walkowicz, M.J.; Buiting, K.; Johnson, D.K.; Tarvin, R.E.; Rinchik, E.M.; Horsthemke, B.; Stubbs, L.; Nicholls, R.D. The ancestral gene for transcribed, low-copy repeats in the Prader-Willi/Angelman region encodes a large protein implicated in protein trafficking, which is deficient in mice with neuromuscular and spermiogenic abnormalities. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1999, 8, 533–542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  90. Martínez-Noël, G.; Galligan, J.T.; Sowa, M.E.; Arndt, V.; Overton, T.M.; Harper, J.W.; Howley, P.M. Identification and Proteomic Analysis of Distinct UBE3A/E6AP Protein Complexes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2012, 32, 3095–3106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  91. Kühnle, S.; Kogel, U.; Glockzin, S.; Marquardt, A.; Ciechanover, A.; Matentzoglu, K.; Scheffner, M. Physical and Functional Interaction of the HECT Ubiquitin-protein Ligases E6AP and HERC2. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 19410–19416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  92. Callaghan, M.J.; Russell, A.J.; Woollatt, E.; Sutherland, G.R.; Sutherland, R.L.; Watts, C.K. Identification of a human HECT family protein with homology to the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs. Oncogene 1998, 17, 3479–3491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  93. Clancy, J.L.; Henderson, M.J.; Russell, A.J.; Anderson, D.W.; Bova, R.J.; Campbell, I.G.; Choong, D.Y.; Macdonald, G.A.; Mann, G.J.; Nolan, T.; et al. EDD, the human orthologue of the hyperplastic discs tumour suppressor gene, is amplified and overexpressed in cancer. Oncogene 2003, 22, 5070–5081. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  94. Tomaić, V.; Pim, D.; Thomas, M.; Massimi, P.; Myers, M.P.; Banks, L. Regulation of the Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6/E6AP Ubiquitin Ligase Complex by the HECT Domain-Containing Protein EDD. J. Virol. 2011, 85, 3120–3127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  95. Subbaiah, V.K.; Zhang, Y.; Rajagopalan, D.; Abdullah, L.N.; Yeo-Teh, N.S.L.; Tomaić, V.; Banks, L.; Myers, M.P.; Chow, E.K.; Jha, S. E3 ligase EDD1/UBR5 is utilized by the HPV E6 oncogene to destabilize tumor suppressor TIP60. Oncogene 2016, 35, 2062–2074. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Hayman, T.J.; Hsu, A.C.; Kolesnik, T.B.; Dagley, L.F.; Willemsen, J.; Tate, M.D.; Baker, P.J.; Kershaw, N.J.; Kedzierski, L.; Webb, A.I.; et al. RIPLET, and not TRIM25, is required for endogenous RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2019. [CrossRef]
  97. Oshiumi, H.; Miyashita, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Seya, T. A distinct role of Riplet-mediated K63-Linked polyubiquitination of the RIG-I repressor domain in human antiviral innate immune responses. PLoS Pathog. 2013, 9, e1003533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  98. Chiang, C.; Pauli, E.-K.; Biryukov, J.; Feister, K.F.; Meng, M.; White, E.A.; et al. The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein Targets USP15 and TRIM25 To Suppress RIG-I-Mediated Innate Immune Signaling. J. Virol. 2018, 92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  99. Wu, L.C.; Wang, Z.W.; Tsan, J.T.; Spillman, M.A.; Phung, A.; Xu, X.L.; Yang, M.C.W.; Hwang, L.Y.; Bowcock, A.M.; Baer, R. Identification of a RING protein that can interact in vivo with the BRCA1 gene product. Nat. Genet. 1996, 14, 430–440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Morris, J.R.; Keep, N.H.; Solomon, E. Identification of residues required for the interaction of BARD1 with BRCA1. J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277, 9382–9386. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  101. Yim, E.-K.; Lee, K.-H.; Myeong, J.; Tong, S.-Y.; Um, S.-J.; Park, J.-S. Novel interaction between HPV E6 and BARD1 (BRCA1-associated ring domain 1) and its biologic roles. DNA Cell Biol. 2007, 26, 753–761. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Zhang, Y.; Fan, S.; Meng, Q.; Ma, Y.; Katiyar, P.; Schlegel, R.; Rosen, E.M. BRCA1 interaction with human papillomavirus oncoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 33165–33177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  103. Thomas, M.; Banks, L. PDZRN3/LNX3 is a novel target of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 E6. J. Virol. 2015, 89, 1439–1444. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  104. Guo, Y.; Meng, X.; Ma, J.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Shang, H. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 contributes HIF-1α induced Warburg effect by attenuating the VHL-HIF-1α interaction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 7974–7986. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  105. Albert, T.K.; Hanzawa, H.; Legtenberg, Y.I.A.; de Ruwe, M.J.; van den Heuvel, F.A.J.; Collart, M.A.; Boelens, R.; Timmers, H.T.M. Identification of a ubiquitin–protein ligase subunit within the CCR4–NOT transcription repressor complex. EMBO J. 2002, 21, 355–364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  106. Schaper, I.D.; Marcuzzi, G.P.; Weissenborn, S.J.; Kasper, H.U.; Dries, V.; Smyth, N.; Fuchs, P.; Pfister, H. Development of skin tumors in mice transgenic for early genes of human papillomavirus type 8. Cancer Res. 2005, 65, 1394–1400. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  107. Hatterschide, J.; Bohidar, A.E.; Grace, M.; Nulton, T.J.; Kim, H.W.; Windle, B.; Morgan, I.M.; Munger, K.; White, E.A. PTPN14 degradation by high-risk human papillomavirus E7 limits keratinocyte differentiation and contributes to HPV-mediated oncogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2019, 116, 7033–7042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  108. White, E.A.; Münger, K.; Howley, P.M. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E7 Proteins Target PTPN14 for Degradation. MBio 2016, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  109. An, J.; Mo, D.; Liu, H.; Veena, M.S.; Srivatsan, E.S.; Massoumi, R.; Rettig, M.B. Inactivation of the CYLD deubiquitinase by HPV E6 mediates hypoxia-induced NF-kappaB activation. Cancer Cell 2008, 14, 394–407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  110. Kiran, S.; Dar, A.; Singh, S.K.; Lee, K.Y.; Dutta, A. The Deubiquitinase USP46 Is Essential for Proliferation and Tumor Growth of HPV-Transformed Cancers. Mol. Cell 2018, 72, 823–835, e5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  111. Tomaić, V.; Ganti, K.; Pim, D.; Bauer, C.; Blattner, C.; Banks, L. Interaction of HPV E6 oncoproteins with specific proteasomal subunits. Virology 2013, 446, 389–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  112. Rozenblatt-Rosen, O.; Deo, R.C.; Padi, M.; Adelmant, G.; Calderwood, M.A.; Rolland, T.; Byrdsong, D.; Correll, M.; Fan, C.; Feltkamp, M.C.; et al. Interpreting cancer genomes using systematic host network perturbations by tumour virus proteins. Nature 2012, 487, 491–495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  113. Scanlon, T.C.; Gottlieb, B.; Durcan, T.M.; Fon, E.A.; Beitel, L.K.; Trifiro, M.A. Isolation of human proteasomes and putative proteasome-interacting proteins using a novel affinity chromatography method. Exp. Cell Res. 2009, 315, 176–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  114. Besche, H.C.; Haas, W.; Gygi, S.P.; Goldberg, A.L. Isolation of mammalian 26S proteasomes and p97/VCP complexes using the ubiquitin-like domain from HHR23B reveals novel proteasome-associated proteins. Biochemistry 2009, 48, 2538–2549. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  115. Kleijnen, M.F.; Shih, A.H.; Zhou, P.; Kumar, S.; Soccio, R.E.; Kedersha, N.L.; et al. The hPLIC proteins may provide a link between the ubiquitination machinery and the proteasome. Mol. Cell 2000, 6, 409–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Wang, X.; Chen, C.-F.; Baker, P.R.; Chen, P.; Kaiser, P.; Huang, L. Mass spectrometric characterization of the affinity-purified human 26S proteasome complex. Biochemistry 2007, 46, 3553–3565. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Tai, H.-C.; Besche, H.; Goldberg, A.L.; Schuman, E.M. Characterization of the Brain 26S Proteasome and its Interacting Proteins. Front. Mol. Neurosci. 2010, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  118. Clemens, K.E.; Brent, R.; Gyuris, J.; Munger, K. Dimerization of the human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein in vivo. Virology 1995, 214, 289–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  119. Münger, K.; Grace, M.; Yee, C.; Jones, D.L.; Mavromatis, K.O.; Mukherjee, R. The carboxyl-terminal zinc-binding domain of the human papillomavirus E7 protein can be functionally replaced by the homologous sequences of the E6 protein. Virus Res. 2002, 52, 109–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Phelps, W.C.; Yee, C.L.; Münger, K.; Howley, P.M. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 gene encodes transactivation and transformation functions similar to those of adenovirus E1A. Cell 1988, 53, 539–547. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  121. Phelps, W.C.; Munger, K.; Yee, C.L.; Barnes, J.A.; Howley, P.M. Structure-Function Analysis of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein. J. Virol. 1992, 66, 2418–2427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  122. McLaughlin, M.; Münger, K. The Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncoprotein. Virology 2010, 384, 335–344. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  123. Roman, A.; Munger, K. The papillomavirus E7 proteins. Virology 2013, 445, 138–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  124. Smotkin, D.; Wettstein, F.O. Transcription of human papillomavirus type 16 early genes in a cervical cancer and a cancer-derived cell line and identification of the E7 protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986, 83, 4680–4684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  125. Morris, E.J.; Dyson, N.J. Retinoblastoma protein partners. Adv. Cancer Res. 2001, 82, 1–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Pintard, L.; Willems, A.; Peter, M. Cullin-based ubiquitin ligases: Cul3-BTB complexes join the family. EMBO J. 2004, 23, 1681–1687. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  127. Zimmerman, E.S.; Schulman, B.A.; Zheng, N. Structural assembly of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2010, 20, 714–721. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  128. Xu, J.; Fang, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, F.; Tian, Q.; Li, Y.; Xie, X.; Cheng, X.; Lu, W. CUL2 overexpression driven by CUL2/E2F1/miR-424 regulatory loop promotes HPV16 E7 induced cervical carcinogenesis. Oncotarget 2016, 7, 31520–31533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  129. Westrich, J.A.; Warren, C.J.; Klausner, M.J.; Guo, K.; Liu, C.-W.; Santiago, M.L.; Pyeon, D. Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Stabilizes APOBEC3A Protein by Inhibiting Cullin 2-Dependent Protein Degradation. J. Virol. 2018, 92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  130. Vasudevan, S.; Starostina, N.G.; Kipreos, E.T. The Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cycle regulator ZYG-11 defines a conserved family of CUL-2 complex components. EMBO Rep. 2007, 8, 279–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  131. Oh, K.; Kalinina, A.; Wang, J.; Nakayama, K.; Nakayama, K.I.; Bagchi, S. The Papillomavirus E7 Oncoprotein Is Ubiquitinated by UbcH7 and Cullin 1- and Skp2-Containing E3 Ligase. J. Virol. 2004, 78, 5338–5346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  132. Reinstein, E.; Scheffner, M.; Oren, M.; Ciechanover, A.; Schwartz, A. Degradation of the E7 human papillomavirus oncoprotein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system: Targeting via ubiquitination of the N-terminal residue. Oncogene 2000, 19, 5944–5950. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  133. Zhang, B.; Chen, W.; Roman, A. The E7 proteins of low- and high-risk human papillomaviruses share the ability to target the pRB family member p130 for degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 437–442. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  134. Tedesco, D.; Lukas, J.; Reed, S.I. The pRb-related protein p130 is regulated by phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis via the protein-ubiquitin ligase SCFSkp2. Genes Dev. 2002, 16, 2946–2957. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  135. Boyer, S.N.; Wazer, D.E.; Band, V. E7 protein of human papilloma virus-16 induces degradation of retinoblastoma protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cancer Res. 1996, 56, 4620–4624. [Google Scholar]
  136. Jang, J.-H. FIGC, a novel FGF-induced ubiquitin-protein ligase in gastric cancers. FEBS Lett. 2004, 578, 21–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  137. Ahmad, K.F.; Melnick, A.; Lax, S.; Bouchard, D.; Liu, J.; Kiang, C.-L.; Mayer, S.; Takahashi, S.; Licht, J.D.; Privé, G.G. Mechanism of SMRT corepressor recruitment by the BCL6 BTB domain. Mol. Cell 2003, 12, 1551–1564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Melnick, A.M.; Adelson, K.; Licht, J.D. The theoretical basis of transcriptional therapy of cancer: Can it be put into practice? J. Clin. Oncol. 2005, 23, 3957–3970. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Kang, M.-I.; Kobayashi, A.; Wakabayashi, N.; Kim, S.-G.; Yamamoto, M. Scaffolding of Keap1 to the actin cytoskeleton controls the function of Nrf2 as key regulator of cytoprotective phase 2 genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 2046–2051. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  140. Bomont, P.; Cavalier, L.; Blondeau, F.; Ben Hamida, C.; Belal, S.; Tazir, M.; Demir, E.; Topaloglu, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Tüysüz, B. The gene encoding gigaxonin, a new member of the cytoskeletal BTB/kelch repeat family, is mutated in giant axonal neuropathy. Nat. Genet. 2000, 26, 370–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Kobayashi, A.; Kang, M.-I.; Okawa, H.; Ohtsuji, M.; Zenke, Y.; Chiba, T.; et al. Oxidative stress sensor Keap1 functions as an adaptor for Cul3-based E3 ligase to regulate proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2004, 24, 7130–7139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  142. Pintard, L.; Willis, J.H.; Willems, A.; Johnson, J.-L.F.; Srayko, M.; Kurz, T.; Glaser, S.; Mains, P.E.; Tyers, M.; Bowerman, B.; et al. The BTB protein MEL-26 is a substrate-specific adaptor of the CUL-3 ubiquitin-ligase. Nature 2003, 425, 311–316. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Geyer, R.; Wee, S.; Anderson, S.; Yates, J.; Wolf, D.A. BTB/POZ domain proteins are putative substrate adaptors for cullin 3 ubiquitin ligases. Mol. Cell 2003, 12, 783–790. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Krek, W. BTB proteins as henchmen of Cul3-based ubiquitin ligases. Nat. Cell Biol. 2003, 5, 950–951. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Willems, A.R.; Schwab, M.; Tyers, M. A hitchhiker’s guide to the cullin ubiquitin ligases: SCF and its kin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2004, 1695, 133–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  146. Chen, Y.; Yang, Z.; Meng, M.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, N.; Yan, H.; Liu, L.; Ding, M.; Peng, H.B.; Shao, F. Cullin mediates degradation of RhoA through evolutionarily conserved BTB adaptors to control actin cytoskeleton structure and cell movement. Mol. Cell 2009, 35, 841–855. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Songock, W.K.; Kim, S.-M.; Bodily, J.M. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein as a regulator of transcription. Virus Res. 2017, 231, 56–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  148. Nakayama, K.; Nakayama, N.; Davidson, B.; Sheu, J.J.-C.; Jinawath, N.; Santillan, A.; Salani, R.; Bristow, R.E.; Morin, P.J.; Kurman, R.J.; et al. A BTB/POZ protein, NAC-1, is related to tumor recurrence and is essential for tumor growth and survival. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 18739–18744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  149. Rahman, M.T.; Nakayama, K.; Rahman, M.; Katagiri, H.; Katagiri, A.; Ishibashi, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Iida, K.; Nakayama, N.; Otsuki, Y.; et al. Fatty acid synthase expression associated with NAC1 is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Br. J. Cancer 2012, 107, 300–307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  150. Sekine, J.; Nakatani, E.; Ohira, K.; Hideshima, K.; Kanno, T.; Nariai, Y.; et al. Nucleus Accumbens-Associated Protein 1 Expression Has Potential as a Marker for Distinguishing Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PLoS ONE 2015, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  151. Basile, J.R.; Zacny, V.; Münger, K. The Cytokines Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand Differentially Modulate Proliferation and Apoptotic Pathways in Human Keratinocytes Expressing the Human Papillomavirus-16 E7 Oncoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276, 22522–22528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  152. ichiro Inoue, J.; Ishida, T.; Tsukamoto, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Naito, A.; Azuma, S.; Yamamoto, T. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family: Adapter proteins that mediate cytokine signaling. Exp. Cell Res. 2000, 254, 14–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  153. Cheng, H.; Zhan, N.; Ding, D.; Liu, X.; Zou, X.; Li, K.; Xia, Y. HPV Type 16 Infection Switches Keratinocytes from Apoptotic to Proliferative Fate under TWEAK/Fn14 Interaction. J. Investig. Dermatol. 2015, 135, 2427–2436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  154. Zhang, J.; Chen, T.; Yang, X.; Cheng, H.; Spath, S.S.; Clavijo, P.E.; Chen, J.; Silvin, C.; Issaeva, N.; Su, X.; et al. Attenuated TRAF3 fosters activation of alternative NF-kB and reduced expression of antiviral interferon, TP53, and RB to promote HPV-positive head and neck cancers. Cancer Res. 2018, 78, 4613–4626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  155. Santin, A.D.; Zhan, F.; Bignotti, E.; Siegel, E.R.; Cané, S.; Bellone, S.; Palmieri, M.; Anfossi, S.; Thomas, M.; Burnett, A.; et al. Gene expression profiles of primary HPV16- and HPV18-infected early stage cervical cancers and normal cervical epithelium: Identification of novel candidate molecular markers for cervical cancer diagnosis and therapy. Virology 2005, 331, 269–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  156. Lin, C.H.; Chang, H.S.; Yu, W.C.Y. USP11 stabilizes HPV-16E7 and further modulates the E7 biological activity. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 15681–15688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  157. Berezutskaya, E.; Bagchi, S. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein functionally interacts with the S4 subunit of the 26 S proteasome. J. Biol. Chem. 1997, 272, 30135–30140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
Figure 1. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) dependent activities of α- and β-HPV E6 oncoproteins. E6 oncoproteins from α and β types interact with various components of the UPS and as speculated use them to modulate a number of cellular processes. By interacting with the UPS components high-risk (HR) α-type HPV E6s are involved in the regulation of all the processes shown above; low-risk (LR) α-type E6s are involved in regulation of viral life cycle, modulation of E6AP activity, and regulation of the immune response; β-type HPV E6s are involved in regulation of the viral life cycle, modulation of E6AP activity, regulation of the immune response, and E6 oncoprotein stability.
Figure 1. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) dependent activities of α- and β-HPV E6 oncoproteins. E6 oncoproteins from α and β types interact with various components of the UPS and as speculated use them to modulate a number of cellular processes. By interacting with the UPS components high-risk (HR) α-type HPV E6s are involved in the regulation of all the processes shown above; low-risk (LR) α-type E6s are involved in regulation of viral life cycle, modulation of E6AP activity, and regulation of the immune response; β-type HPV E6s are involved in regulation of the viral life cycle, modulation of E6AP activity, regulation of the immune response, and E6 oncoprotein stability.
Pathogens 09 00133 g001
Figure 2. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) dependent activities of α- and β-HPV E7 oncoproteins. E7 oncoproteins from α and β types interact with various components of the UPS and are thought to use them to modulate a number of cellular processes. By interacting with the UPS components, high-risk (HR) α-type E7s are involved in the regulation of all the processes shown above; low-risk (LR) α-type E7s are involved in cell migration, apoptosis, regulation of the immune response, viral life cycle modulation and E7 protein turnover; β-type E7s are involved in cell migration, apoptosis, endosomal trafficking and regulation of the immune response.
Figure 2. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) dependent activities of α- and β-HPV E7 oncoproteins. E7 oncoproteins from α and β types interact with various components of the UPS and are thought to use them to modulate a number of cellular processes. By interacting with the UPS components, high-risk (HR) α-type E7s are involved in the regulation of all the processes shown above; low-risk (LR) α-type E7s are involved in cell migration, apoptosis, regulation of the immune response, viral life cycle modulation and E7 protein turnover; β-type E7s are involved in cell migration, apoptosis, endosomal trafficking and regulation of the immune response.
Pathogens 09 00133 g002
Table 1. HPV E6 interactions with ubiquitin-proteasome system components.
Table 1. HPV E6 interactions with ubiquitin-proteasome system components.
Gene IDGeneProteinFunctionα-HPVβ-HPVMethodRef.
LRHR
580BARD1Breast Cancer 1 Gene (BRCA1)- associated RING domain protein 1Putative tumor suppressor gene mutated cancers. Homologous to BRCA1 RING motif and BRCT domain. BARD1/BRCA1 heterodimer is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1. Heterodimer is required for BRCA1 tumor suppression and increases stability of both proteins.+?Yeast-two hybrid, co-IPYim et al. (2007)
672BRCA1Breast Cancer type 1 susceptibility proteinTumor suppressor. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase component of BARD1/BRCA1 heterodimer. BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer coordinates DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic stability.?+?IP, GST-pull downZhang et al. (2005)
4850CNOT4CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 4E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, promoting degradation of target proteins. Involved in JAK/STAT activation+IP, MSWhite et al. (2012)
1540CYLDCYLD lysine 63 (K63) DUBA lysine 63 (K63) deubiquitinase. Tumor suppressor negatively regulating NF-κB pathway. Ubiquitinated and degraded during Hypoxia-induced NF-κB activation to relieve its inhibition of NF-κB signaling cascade?+?An et al. (2008)
8925HERC1HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 1An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and then transfers the ubiquitin to targeted substrates. Involved in membrane trafficking.+IP, proximity ligation in situ assayHolloway et al. (2015)
8924HERC2HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase 2A putative HECT domain E3 ligase. Involved in protein trafficking and degradation pathways regulating ubiquitin-dependent retention of repair proteins on damaged chromosomes. Recruited to sites of DNA damage in response to ionizing radiation. Promotes DNA damage-induced formation of ‘Lys-63’-linked ubiquitin chains.<++<+IP, MSVos et al. (2009); White et al. (2012)
83737ITCHE3 ubiquitin- protein ligase ItchyAn E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which is involved in the control of inflammatory signaling pathways. An essential component of an ubiquitin-editing protein complex ensuring the transience of inflammatory signaling pathways by regulating ubiquitin-dependent signaling events. Involved in the cellular antiviral response.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
23295MGRN1Mahogunin ring finger 1Has RING- E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity in vitro. Involved in regulation of endosome-to-lysosome trafficking. A negative regulator of hedgehog signaling.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
23024PDZRN3PDZ domain containing ring finger 3A member of the LNX (Ligand of Numb Protein-X) family of RING E3 ubiquitin- protein ligases. Required for vascular morphogenesis and differentiation of adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts.++GST-pull downPoirson et al. (2017); Thomas and Banks (2015)
29951PDZRN4PDZ domain containing ring finger 4A member of the LNX family of RING E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. A suppressor of cell proliferation in human liver cancer cell lines.+GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
5684PSMA3Proteasome subunit alpha 3Components of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in proteolysis of most cellular proteins. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, form the 26S proteasome. Involved in ATP- dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins.+++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5695PSMB7Proteasome subunit beta 7++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5698PSMB9Proteasome subunit beta 9+IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5700PSMC1Proteasome 26S subunit 4, ATPase 1A component of the 26S proteasome belonging to the heterohexameric ring of AAA proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). Unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins.?+?GST-pull downTomaić et al. (2013)
5701PSMC2Proteasome 26S subunit 7, ATPase 2Components of the 26S proteasome.+++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012); Tomaić et al. (2013)
5702PSMC3Proteasome 26S regulatory subunit 6A, ATPase 3++IP-MS/MS, GST-pull donwWhite et al. (2012); Tomaić et al. (2013)
5704PSMC4Proteasome 26S subunit 6B, ATPase 4++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5705PSMC526S proteasome regulatory subunit 8?+?GST-pull downTomaić et al. (2013)
5707PSMD126S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 1+++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5708PSMD2Proteasome 26S subunit 2, non-ATPase 2Component of the 26S proteasome, binds to the intracellular domain of tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (TNFR1); the binding domain of TRAP1 and TRAP2 resides outside the death domain of TNFR1.+++IP-MS/MS, GST-pull downWhite et al. (2012); Tomaić et al. (2013)
5710PSMD426S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 4A major ubiquitin- accepting proteasome subunit. Involved in maintaining structural integrity of the 19S regulatory particle. Important in direct and indirect recognition of ubiquitinated substrates of 26S proteasome by interacting with polyubiquitinated proteins and directing them to the proteasome for degradation. A critical controlling factor in regulation of protein degradation at the proteasome.?+?IP-MS/MSTomaić et al. (2013)
5709PSMD3Proteasome 26S subunit 3, non-ATPase 3Components of the 26S proteasome.+++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
9861PSMD6Proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 6++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5713PSMD7Proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 7++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5714PSMD8Proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 8++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
5719PSMD1326S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 13+++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
10213PSMD1426S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
23198PSME4Proteasome activator subunit 4A proteasome component that specifically recognizes and promotes ATP- and ubiquitin-independent degradation of acetylated core histones during DNA damage response to double-strand breaks.+IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
64320RNF25Ring finger protein 25A RING finger- dependent E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase that mediates ubiquitination and stimulates transcription mediated by NF-κB.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
9810RNF40Ring finger protein 40A component of the RNF20/40 E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase complex; forms a H2B ubiquitin ligase complex in cooperation with the UBE2A or UBE2B. Supports maintenance of tumorigenic features and inflammatory signaling by promoting nuclear NF-κB activity.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
85456TNKS1BP1Tankyrase-1-binding proteinA subunit of the smaller 1-MDa core of Ccr4-Not complex. Ccr4-Not is an mRNA deadenylase and has a ubiquitin-protein ligase function.<+<++IP-MS/MSWhite et al. (2012)
7188TRAF5TNF receptor associated factor 5Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) protein family. An adapter protein and signal transducer linked to various signaling pathways by association with the receptor cytoplasmic domain and kinases. Involved in cytokine signaling and mediates activation of NF-κB and JNK. It is also involved in apoptosis.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7189TRAF6TNF receptor- associated factor 6An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates the synthesis of ‘Lys-63’- linked-polyubiquitin chains conjugated to target proteins and ubiquitination of unanchored poly- ubiquitin chains. Induces activation of NF-κB and JUN. An adaptor protein and signal transducer linking TNFR proteins to different signaling pathways. Plays a role in signal transduction initiated via TNF receptor, IL-1 receptor and IL-17 receptor.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7706TRIM25Tripartite motif containing 25An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in innate immune defense against viruses. Crucially involved in the interferon response to viral infection.+++co-IPChiang et al. (2018)
10422UBAC1UBA domain containing 1A ubiquitin-protein ligase required for poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of CDKN1B during G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A non-catalytic subunit of the KPC Kip1 ubiquitination- promoting complex.
?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7337UBE3AUbiquitin- protein ligase E3AAn E3-HECT domain- containing ubiquitin- protein ligase. It promotes its own degradation in vivo. This imprinted gene is maternally expressed in the brain and biallelically expressed in other tissues. It plays an important role in regulation of the circadian clock and acts as a regulator of synaptic development.<+++Yeast-two hybrid, co-crystal x-ray crystalography, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017); Storey et al. (1998); Kao et al. (2000); Brimer et al., 2007; Thomas et al. (2013)
23352UBR4Ubiquitin- protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, a component of the N-end rule pathway. Recognizes and binds to proteins bearing a specific N-terminal leading to ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Forms meshwork structures involved in membrane morphogenesis and cytoskeletal organization and regulates integrin-mediated signaling.+IPWhite et al. (2012); Thomas et al. (2013)
51366UBR5Ubiquitin- protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5Also known as EDD (E3 identified by Differential Display). A HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase component of the N-end rule pathway. Involved in coordinating the balance between cell cycle progression and differentiation. A regulator of DNA damage response, acts as a guard against excessive spreading of ubiquitinated chromatin at damaged chromosomes, as well as tumor suppressor. Frequently overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer.++co-IP, MSTomaić et al. (2011); White et al. (2012)
9958USP15Ubiquitin specific peptidase 15A deubiquitinating enzyme of the ubiquitin specific protease (USP) family. Plays a critical role in ubiquitin- dependent processes through polyubiquitin chain disassembly and hydrolysis of ubiquitin- substrate bonds.++Yeast-two hybrid, GPCA, IPVos et al. (2009); Poirson et al. (2017); Yaginuma et al. (2018); Chiang et al. (2018)
64854USP46Ubiquitin carboxyl- terminal hydrolase 46A deubiquitinating enzyme that plays a role in behavior by regulating GABA action. Has little intrinsic deubiquitinating activity and requires interaction with regulator of deubiquitinating complexes WDR48 (WD repeat-containing protein 48) for high activity.+?co-IPKiran et al. (2018)
7428VHLVon Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressorVHL is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin C, elongin B, and cullin-2. An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia- inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor crucial to oxygen-related gene expression.. HPV16 E6 promotes hypoxia- induced Warburg effect through blocking the association of HIF-1α and VHL?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017); Guo et al. (2014)
331XIAPX-linked inhibitor of apoptosisA multi-functional protein that regulates apoptosis, modulates inflammatory signaling and immunity, cell proliferation, cell invasion and metastasis. An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase regulating NF-κB signaling and other target. An important regulator of innate immune signaling via regulation of Nod-like receptors (NLRs).?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
+ confirmed to interact; +, < confirmed interactions with lower affinity compared to hR-HPV E6; - interactions not detected; ? interactions not tested. Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; GPCA: Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay, IP-MS/MS: immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry, IP: immunoprecipitation.
Table 2. HPV E7 interactions with ubiquitin-proteasome system components.
Table 2. HPV E7 interactions with ubiquitin-proteasome system components.
Gene IDGeneProteinFunctionα-HPVβ-HPVMethodRef.
LRHR
8454CUL1Cullin-1A core component of cullin-RING-based SCF E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase complex, which mediates ubiquitination and proteolysis of E7.++?IPMünger et al. (1989); Boyer et al. (1996); Oh et al. (2004)
8453CUL2Cullin-2A core component of cullin-RING-based ECS E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase complex. Stabilizes APOBEC3A.
Required for E7-induced degradation of pRB contributing to cell transformation by dysregulating G1/S cell cycle checkpoints
+-co-IPHuh et al. (2007); Narisawa-Saito and Kiyono. (2007); White et al. (2012); Xu et al. (2016); Westrich et al. (2018)
8452CUL3Cullin-3A core component of cullin-RING-based BCR E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target proteins.++?co-IPWhite et al. (2012); Poirson et al. (2017)
90379DCAF15DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 15May be involved in ubiquitination and degradation through a DBB1-CUL4 E3 protein-ubiquitin ligase.+GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
253980KCTD13Potassium channel tetramer- ization domain 13A substrate-specific adapter of a BCR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex required for synaptic transmission.+++GPCA, co-IPChen et al. (2009); Poirson et al. (2017)
112939NACC1Nucleus accumbens- associated protein 1A transcriptional repressor and transcriptional corepressor in neuronal cells through recruitment of HDAC3 and HDAC4 Required to recruit the proteasome from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and dendritic spines.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
9148NEURL1Neuralized E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase 1An E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase that activates in vitro ubiquitination of JAG1, inhibiting malignant cell transformation of medulloblastoma cells through the Notch pathway.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
5700PSMC126S proteasome regulatory subunit 4A component of the 26S proteasome.+?IPBerezutskaya and Bagchi (1997); Ben-Saadon et al. (2004)
84282RNF135ring finger protein 135An E2-dependent E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, involved in innate immune defense against viruses.+, <+GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
57630SH3RF1SH3 domain containing ring finger 1Has an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. In the absence of an external substrate, it can catalyze self-ubiquitination.+, <+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
92799SHKBP1SH3KBP1- binding protein 1SHKBP1 inhibits CBL-SH3KBP1 complex mediated downregulation of EGFR signaling by sequestration of SH3KBP1.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
7126TNFAIP1TNF alpha induced protein 1A substrate-specific adapter of a BCR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that mediates the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of RhoA, thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. HPV-16 E7 can modulate the responses of its natural host cell to the closely related cytokines TNF-α.+++GPCA, co-IPBasile et al. (2001); Poirson et al. (2017)
7186TRAF2TNF receptor associated factor 2Regulates the activation of NF-κB and JNK and plays a central role in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis. An essential constituent of several E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. HPV16 E6/E7 switch cells from apoptotic to proliferative fates under TWEAK/Fn14 interaction, possibly by favoring Ras and TRAF2 activation and modulating TNF receptor expression.++GPCA, co-IPCheng et al. (2015); Poirson et al. (2017)
7187TRAF3TNF receptor associated factor 3Regulates pathways leading to activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases, and plays a central role in the regulation of B-cell survival. An essential constituent of several E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes. Overexpression of TRAF3 enhances p53 and pRb expression?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017); Zhang et al. (2018)
9618TRAF4TNF receptor associated factor 4An adaptor protein and signal transducer linking members of the TNFR family to different signaling pathways. Plays a role in the activation of NF-κB and JNK, and in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis. May interact selectively and non-covalently with E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase enzymes.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7188TRAF5TNF receptor associated factor 5An adaptor protein and signal transducer linking members of the TNFR family to different signaling pathways.
May interact selectively and non-covalently with E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase enzymes.
+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
10346TRIM22tripartite motif containing 22An interferon- induced antiviral protein involved in innate immunity. May have E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Activated by integration of E6/E7 genes.?+?GPCAPett et al. (2006); Poirson et al. (2017)
22954TRIM32tripartite motif containing 32An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. It ubiquitinates DTNBP1 and promotes its degradation.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
493829TRIM72tripartite motif containing 72A muscle-specific protein that plays a central role in cell membrane repair by nucleating the assembly of the repair machinery at injury sites. May be involved in proteasome- mediated, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes.++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
114088TRIM9tripartite motif containing 9An E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase, which self-ubiquitinates in cooperation with E2 enzyme UBE2D2/UBC4. Serves as a targeting signal for proteasomal degradation.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7314UBBubiquitin BTargets cellular proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure, the regulation of gene expression, and the stress response.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7319UBE2AUbiquitin- conjugating enzyme E2AAccepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex. In association with the E3 enzyme, UBE2A plays a role in transcription regulation by catalyzing the ubiquitination of histone H2B.++?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
7332UBE2L3Ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme E2L3Specifically acts with HECT-type and RBR family E3 ubiquitin- protein ligases. Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins including E7.?+?IPReinstein et al. (2000)
23352UBR4Ubiquitin- protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4Also known as p600. An E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase that recognizes proteins with specific destabilized N-terminal residues, leading to their ubiquitination and degradation. May mediate some pRB- independent transforming activities of HPV-16 E7, but is not sufficient for cellular transformation as interactions were also found with low-risk HPV E7 oncoproteins. It is speculated that UBR4 could potentially play a role in viral replication.+++IPHuh et al. (2005); De Masi et al. (2005); White et al. (2012)
8237USP11Ubiquitin carboxyl- terminal hydrolase 11Inhibits degradation of target proteins by the proteasome. Plays a role in the regulation of pathways leading to NF-κ-B activation. Augments HPV-16E7 activity in modulating downstream target genes, such as pRb, Bcl-2, and Cdc-2, suggesting that this interaction may contribute to cell transformation by HPV-16E7.?+?IPLin et al. (2008); Poirson et al. (2017)
83844USP26Ubiquitin carboxyl- terminal hydrolase 26Involved in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in conjunction with the 26S proteasome.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
57663USP29Ubiquitin carboxyl- terminal hydrolase 29A thiol-dependent hydrolyser of ester, thioester, amide, peptide and isopeptide bonds formed by the C-terminal Gly of ubiquitin.+GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
23032USP33Ubiquitin carboxyl- terminal hydrolase 33A deubiquitinating enzyme involved in centrosome duplication, cell migration and beta-2 adrenergic receptor/ADRB2 recycling.+++GPCA, co-IPPoirson et al. (2017)
90850ZNF598Zinc finger protein 598An E3 ubiquitin- protein ligase required for terminal stalling of ribosomes during translation of poly(A) sequences by mediating ubiquitination of 40S ribosomal protein.?+?GPCAPoirson et al. (2017)
+ confirmed to interact; +, < confirmed interactions with lower affinity compared to HR-HPV E7; - interactions not detected; ? interactions not tested. Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; GPCA: Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay, IP-MS/MS: immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry, IP: immunoprecipitation.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Đukić, A.; Lulić, L.; Thomas, M.; Skelin, J.; Bennett Saidu, N.E.; Grce, M.; Banks, L.; Tomaić, V. HPV Oncoproteins and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: A Signature of Malignancy? Pathogens 2020, 9, 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020133

AMA Style

Đukić A, Lulić L, Thomas M, Skelin J, Bennett Saidu NE, Grce M, Banks L, Tomaić V. HPV Oncoproteins and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: A Signature of Malignancy? Pathogens. 2020; 9(2):133. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Đukić, Anamaria, Lucija Lulić, Miranda Thomas, Josipa Skelin, Nathaniel Edward Bennett Saidu, Magdalena Grce, Lawrence Banks, and Vjekoslav Tomaić. 2020. "HPV Oncoproteins and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: A Signature of Malignancy?" Pathogens 9, no. 2: 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020133

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop