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Open AccessBrief Report

In-House Developed ELISA Indicates High Prevalence of Anti-Echinococcus granulosus IgG in Sheep Population—An Update from Pakistan

1
State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Professional Laboratory of Animal Hydatidosis, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China
2
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38400, Pakistan
3
Independent Researcher, Bardia, NSW 2565, Australia
4
Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Sub-Campus Jhang 12-Km Chiniot Road, Jhang 35200, Pakistan
5
Punjab Livestock and Dairy Development, Government of Punjab, Chiniot 35400, Pakistan
6
Independent Researcher, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110905
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcus)
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a World Health Organization (WHO)-listed neglected tropical farm economy jeopardizing and public health concern disease. This study was aimed at furnishing sero-epidemiological baseline data of CE in sheep in Pakistan, where data are non-existent. For this purpose, two sheep-rich provinces of Pakistan were selected, and 728 sheep sera were collected using probability proportional to size (PPS) statistical technique. Epidemiological information was recorded on a questionnaire for the estimation of potential risk factors. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus using an in-house-developed EgAgB-based ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence recorded was 21.98% (160/728) in the tested sheep, suggesting higher seropositivity in sheep from Punjab (23.73%) as compared to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) (19.04%). The overall apparent prevalence observed by this ELISA method was almost similar to the calculated true prevalence (21.77%). Prevalence was significantly different (p < 0.05) among sheep from different districts. Higher prevalence was found in females (22.54%, OR 1.41), age group > 5 years (29.66%, OR 1.64), crossbreeds (42.85%, OR 2.70), and sheep with pasture access (25.96%, OR 3.06). Being in age group > 5 years and having pasture access were the factors significantly associated with seropositivity (p < 0.05). This study provides serological evidence of E. granulosus infection in sheep and can be used as a model for ante-mortem screening of the sheep globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus; ELISA; epidemiology; seroprevalence; sheep; Pakistan; risk factor Echinococcus granulosus; ELISA; epidemiology; seroprevalence; sheep; Pakistan; risk factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvi, M.A.; Ohiolei, J.A.; Li, L.; Saqib, M.; Hussain, M.H.; Tayyab, M.H.; Ghafoor, M.; Qamar, W.; Faridi, N.Y.; Alvi, A.A.; Fu, B.-Q.; Yan, H.-B.; Jia, W.-Z. In-House Developed ELISA Indicates High Prevalence of Anti-Echinococcus granulosus IgG in Sheep Population—An Update from Pakistan. Pathogens 2020, 9, 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110905

AMA Style

Alvi MA, Ohiolei JA, Li L, Saqib M, Hussain MH, Tayyab MH, Ghafoor M, Qamar W, Faridi NY, Alvi AA, Fu B-Q, Yan H-B, Jia W-Z. In-House Developed ELISA Indicates High Prevalence of Anti-Echinococcus granulosus IgG in Sheep Population—An Update from Pakistan. Pathogens. 2020; 9(11):905. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110905

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvi, Mughees A.; Ohiolei, John A.; Li, Li; Saqib, Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad H.; Tayyab, Muhammad H.; Ghafoor, Muzafar; Qamar, Warda; Faridi, Noman Y.; Alvi, Anum A.; Fu, Bao-Quan; Yan, Hong-Bin; Jia, Wan-Zhong. 2020. "In-House Developed ELISA Indicates High Prevalence of Anti-Echinococcus granulosus IgG in Sheep Population—An Update from Pakistan" Pathogens 9, no. 11: 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110905

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