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Open AccessArticle

“Smart” Triiodide Compounds: Does Halogen Bonding Influence Antimicrobial Activities?

College of Pharmacy and Health Science, Ajman University, Ajman P.O. Box 346, UAE
Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 182;
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Antimicrobial agents containing symmetrical triiodides complexes with halogen bonding may release free iodine molecules in a controlled manner. This happens due to interactions with the plasma membrane of microorganisms which lead to changes in the structure of the triiodide anion. To verify this hypothesis, the triiodide complex [Na(12-crown-4)2]I3 was prepared by an optimized one-pot synthesis and tested against 18 clinical isolates, 10 reference strains of pathogens and five antibiotics. The antimicrobial activities of this symmetrical triiodide complex were determined by zone of inhibition plate studies through disc- and agar-well-diffusion methods. The triiodide complex proved to be a broad spectrum microbicidal agent. The biological activities were related to the calculated partition coefficient (octanol/water). The microstructural analysis of SEM and EDS undermined the purity of the triiodide complex. The anionic structure consists of isolated, symmetrical triiodide anions [I-I-I] with halogen bonding. Computational methods were used to calculate the energy required to release iodine from [I-I-I] and [I-I···I]. The halogen bonding in the triiodide ion reduces the antibacterial activities in comparison to the inhibitory actions of pure iodine but increases the long term stability of [Na(12-crown-4)2]I3. View Full-Text
Keywords: halogen bonding; triiodide; antimicrobial activity; DFT; lipophilicity; SEM; EDS halogen bonding; triiodide; antimicrobial activity; DFT; lipophilicity; SEM; EDS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Edis, Z.; Haj Bloukh, S.; Abu Sara, H.; Bhakhoa, H.; Rhyman, L.; Ramasami, P. “Smart” Triiodide Compounds: Does Halogen Bonding Influence Antimicrobial Activities? Pathogens 2019, 8, 182.

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