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Brief Report

High Frequency of Cryptosporidium hominis Infecting Infants Points to A Potential Anthroponotic Transmission in Maputo, Mozambique

1
Instituto Nacional de Saúde (INS), EN1, Bairro da Vila–Parcela n° 3943, Distrito de Marracuene, Maputo 264, Mozambique
2
Institute of Tropical Medicine, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
3
Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Unidade de Pesquisa Social, Manhiça Foundation (Fundação Manhiça, FM), Manhiça 1929, Mozambique
4
Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal
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Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Pesquisas Médicas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 22040-360, Brazil
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Disciplina de Parasitologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, UERJ/RH, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
7
Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo 3453, Mozambique
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Carmena
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030293
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 13 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in children less than 2 years of age. In this study, we report the frequency, risk factors and species of Cryptosporidium detected by molecular diagnostic methods in children admitted to two public hospitals in Maputo City, Mozambique. We studied 319 patients under the age of five years who were admitted due to diarrhea between April 2015 and February 2016. Single stool samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, microscopically by using a Modified Ziehl–Neelsen (mZN) staining method and by using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a target. Overall, 57.7% (184/319) were males, the median age (Interquartile range, IQR) was 11.0 (7–15) months. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 11.0% (35/319) by microscopy and in 35.4% (68/192) using PCR-RFLP. The most affected age group were children older than two years, [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 5.861; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.532–22.417; p-value < 0.05]. Children with illiterate caregivers had higher risk of infection (aOR: 1.688; 95% CI: 1.001–2.845; p-value < 0.05). An anthroponotic species C. hominis was found in 93.0% (27/29) of samples. Our findings demonstrated that cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea might be caused by anthroponomic transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute diarrhea; Cryptosporidium; children; risk factor; Mozambique acute diarrhea; Cryptosporidium; children; risk factor; Mozambique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cossa-Moiane, I.; Cossa, H.; Bauhofer, A.F.L.; Chilaúle, J.; Guimarães, E.L.; Bero, D.M.; Cassocera, M.; Bambo, M.; Anapakala, E.; Chissaque, A.; Sambo, J.; Langa, J.S.; Manhique-Coutinho, L.V.; Fantinatti, M.; Lopes-Oliveira, L.A.; Da-Cruz, A.M.; de Deus, N. High Frequency of Cryptosporidium hominis Infecting Infants Points to A Potential Anthroponotic Transmission in Maputo, Mozambique. Pathogens 2021, 10, 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030293

AMA Style

Cossa-Moiane I, Cossa H, Bauhofer AFL, Chilaúle J, Guimarães EL, Bero DM, Cassocera M, Bambo M, Anapakala E, Chissaque A, Sambo J, Langa JS, Manhique-Coutinho LV, Fantinatti M, Lopes-Oliveira LA, Da-Cruz AM, de Deus N. High Frequency of Cryptosporidium hominis Infecting Infants Points to A Potential Anthroponotic Transmission in Maputo, Mozambique. Pathogens. 2021; 10(3):293. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030293

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cossa-Moiane, Idalécia, Hermínio Cossa, Adilson Fernando Loforte Bauhofer, Jorfélia Chilaúle, Esperança Lourenço Guimarães, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Marta Cassocera, Miguel Bambo, Elda Anapakala, Assucênio Chissaque, Júlia Sambo, Jerónimo Souzinho Langa, Lena Vânia Manhique-Coutinho, Maria Fantinatti, Luis António Lopes-Oliveira, Alda Maria Da-Cruz, and Nilsa de Deus. 2021. "High Frequency of Cryptosporidium hominis Infecting Infants Points to A Potential Anthroponotic Transmission in Maputo, Mozambique" Pathogens 10, no. 3: 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030293

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