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Nano-TiO2 in Hydraulic Lime–Metakaolin Mortars for Restoration Projects: Physicochemical and Mechanical Assessment
Open AccessArticle

Development of Eco-Friendly and Self-Cleaning Lime-Pozzolan Plasters for Bio-Construction and Cultural Heritage

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Department of Nanotechnologies and Innovative Materials, Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Scienza e Tecnologia, 20-90139 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Earth and Geo-environmental Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Laboratory of Materials for Cultural Heritage and Modern Building, School of Architecture, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
4
Laboratory of Energy Management in the Built Environment, School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
5
Department of Renewable Energy, Resource Efficiency and Aerospace Research, Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Scienza e Tecnologia, 20-90139 Palermo, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Buildings 2020, 10(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10100172
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 16 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Historic Buildings)
Nowadays, the design and use of multi-functional mortars has increased significantly, with interesting applications in the green building and cultural heritage conservation sectors. A key point for a correct adoption of these innovative materials is their behavior along time and their resistance to the weathering. The objective of this project was to define the performance and durability of innovative mortars, in order to use them correctly and to avoid irreparable damage over time. For the development of this project, lime–metakaolin and hydraulic lime–metakaolin based mortars (hereinafter called A, B), as well as A and B with the addition of nano-TiO2 and perlite (hereinafter referred to as A+, B+), have been tested. The focus of the work was to carry out preliminary tests to evaluate the performance and durability characteristics of these mortars, verifying their behavior over time through exposure to artificial aging cycles, including thermal shock cycles in saline solution aerosols, freeze cycles in vapor aerosol, and aging by heat treatment at high temperatures. Before and after each artificial aging cycle, weight measurements, and macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed in order to evaluate possible structural changes. The characteristics of the mortars were assessed by determination of the apparent volume mass, mechanical properties, such as compressive and bending strength, water absorption, whereas their self-cleaning capacity was measured by methylene blue degradation test under UV and solar irradiation. The results obtained show degradation effects in the mortar samples due to aging after each test, and indicated that mortars with perlite and nano-TiO2 are the best-performing ones, both from the durability and energetic point of view, rendering them suitable for applications in the green building sector and the conservation of cultural heritage. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy efficient mortars; photocatalytic; cultural heritage; bio architecture; nano-titanium dioxide; artificial ageing; self-cleaning energy efficient mortars; photocatalytic; cultural heritage; bio architecture; nano-titanium dioxide; artificial ageing; self-cleaning
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Fernandez, F.; Germinario, S.; Basile, R.; Montagno, R.; Kapetanaki, K.; Gobakis, K.; Kolokotsa, D.; Lagou, A.M.; Dania, P.; Enna, M.T.; Mangiapane, M.; Maravelaki, P.-N. Development of Eco-Friendly and Self-Cleaning Lime-Pozzolan Plasters for Bio-Construction and Cultural Heritage. Buildings 2020, 10, 172.

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