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Open AccessArticle

Modelling of Mass and Thermal Balance and Simulation of Iron Sintering Process with Biomass

Faculty of Materials, Metallurgy and Recycling, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
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Metals 2019, 9(9), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9091010
Received: 19 August 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling and Simulation in Ironmaking and Steelmaking)
This paper specifies the mathematical and physical modelling of the iron sintering process in laboratory conditions. The aim is to get the simplest approach (using thermodynamic software “HSC Chemistry”, version 9, Outokumpu Research Oy, Pori, Finland) that allows one to predict the output parameters based on the initial composition analysis. As a part of the application of mathematical modelling, a mass and thermal balance of combustion of carbonaceous fuels (including biomass) and a mass and thermal balance of high-temperature sintering of an agglomeration charge were determined. The objective of the paper was to point out the advantages of modelling using thermodynamic software and apply the results into a simulation of the sintering process. The outcome of mathematical modelling correlates to the outcome of physical modelling for fuel combustion and the agglomerate production in a laboratory sintering pan. The energy required to reach the desired sintering temperatures and acquire the standard quality of agglomerate was calculated using 4.97% of coke breeze. In a real experiment with the laboratory sintering pan, 4.35% of coke was used. When a biomass fuel with a lower calorific value (lignin) is used in the agglomeration charge, the amount of fuel has to be increased to 5.52% (with 20% substitution of coke). This paper also aimed at predicting methodological tools and defining thermodynamic conditions for creating an interactive simulation. In addition, kinetics should be considered to improve the predicting capabilities of the current model and therefore in further research it will be required to optimise the computational program pursuant to the results of the kinetics experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: agglomerate; carbon fuel; coke breeze; biomass; lignin; modelling; mass-thermal balance; temperature; sintering agglomerate; carbon fuel; coke breeze; biomass; lignin; modelling; mass-thermal balance; temperature; sintering
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Legemza, J.; Fröhlichová, M.; Findorák, R.; Džupková, M. Modelling of Mass and Thermal Balance and Simulation of Iron Sintering Process with Biomass. Metals 2019, 9, 1010.

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