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Leaching of Pure Chalcocite in a Chloride Media Using Sea Water and Waste Water

1
Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Minas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 610, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
2
Department of Mining, Geological and Cartographic Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso Xlll N°52, 30203 Cartagena, Spain
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 610, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
4
Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapó 1531772, Chile
5
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Procesos de Minerales, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1240000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070780
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Abstract

Chalcocite is the most important and abundant secondary copper ore in the world with a rapid dissolution of copper in an acid-chloride environment. In this investigation, the methodology of surface optimization will be applied to evaluate the effect of three independent variables (time, concentration of sulfuric acid and chloride concentration) in the leaching of pure chalcocite to extract the copper with the objective of obtaining a quadratic model that allows us to predict the extraction of copper. The kinetics of copper dissolution in regard to the function of temperature is also analyzed. An ANOVA indicates that the linear variables with the greatest influence are time and the chloride concentration. Also, the concentration of chloride-time exerts a significant synergic effect in the quadratic model. The ANOVA indicates that the quadratic model is representative and the R2 value of 0.92 is valid. The highest copper extraction (67.75%) was obtained at 48 h leaching under conditions of 2 mol/L H2SO4 and 100 g/L chloride. The XRD analysis shows the formation of a stable and non-polluting residue; such as elemental sulfur (S0). This residue was obtained in a leaching time of 4 h at room temperature under conditions of 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 and 50 g/L Cl.
Keywords: chalcocite; sulphide leaching; copper; reusing water; desalination residue; ecological treatment chalcocite; sulphide leaching; copper; reusing water; desalination residue; ecological treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Toro, N.; Briceño, W.; Pérez, K.; Cánovas, M.; Trigueros, E.; Sepúlveda, R.; Hernández, P. Leaching of Pure Chalcocite in a Chloride Media Using Sea Water and Waste Water. Metals 2019, 9, 780.

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