Metallic Materials and Their Applications in Aerospace and Advanced Technologies
1. Introduction and Scope
- Satellite observations have become essential in monitoring the ecological health of the Earth, but they require space launches that raise the paradox of greenhouse and toxic gases rejection by the use of solid propellants [1,2]. Space activities also generate space debris that are more and more commonly identified as a scourge in Low Earth Orbital activities . Limitation of the production of microdebris and the design of spacecraft structures able to survive their dynamic interactions [4,5,6] have become new challenges for the space industry. Space shuttle launches still largely involve carbon-based propellants. Greener launching methods are expected in the near future; liquid hydrogen may create new prospects .
- Energy production remains a key issue for our technological world that is also limited by the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 90% by 2050 compared to 1990. Renewable energy is one of the possible methods than can help to achieve the Cost, Environment, Security, and Job Opportunities quadrilemma . However, energy harvesting is strongly dependent on wind, sun, or water, which cannot provide constant efficiency from day to day or even across seasons, especially in situations with strong local demands when energy storage cannot be sufficient. Renewable energy can then be provided by carbonless energy such as the use of hydrogen [9,10] and nuclear energy  with life cycle assessment considerations .
- Transportation is also undergoing reorganization. This sector is also strongly intricated in the quadrilemma of Cost, Environment, Reliability, and Job Opportunities. The automotive industry is connected to transportable energy by the expansion of electric cars. The recent development of liquid hydrogen as a carbonless energy is also raising challenges , even in aircraft propulsion .
- The industry of the future is going to be composed of new materials and innovative production processes that must cope with energetic and recycling constraints and remain cost effective at the same time. This cannot be achieved without the involvement of advanced technologies. Among new materials, micro and nano-structured materials and meta and lattice materials have attracted the interest of the scientific community. Innovative industrial processes such as in the field of metal forming relying on high pulsed power with electromagnetic sources  and pulsed laser sources  are revolutionizing the manufacturing industry. In recent years, additive methods  and processing technologies such as electromagnetic and explosive welding [18,19] and stir welding  have also met incremental evolutions, allowing for the extension of forming limits and multimaterial assemblies. In any case, the reliability of resulting products and new materials needs to be characterized in terms of mechanical behavior.
3. Concluding Remarks
Institutional Review Board Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Arrigoni, M. Metallic Materials and Their Applications in Aerospace and Advanced Technologies. Metals 2022, 12, 226. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020226
Arrigoni M. Metallic Materials and Their Applications in Aerospace and Advanced Technologies. Metals. 2022; 12(2):226. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020226Chicago/Turabian Style
Arrigoni, Michel. 2022. "Metallic Materials and Their Applications in Aerospace and Advanced Technologies" Metals 12, no. 2: 226. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020226