Next Article in Journal
Statistical Soil Characterization of an Underground Corroded Pipeline Using In-Line Inspections
Next Article in Special Issue
Task Planner for Robotic Disassembly of Electric Vehicle Battery Pack
Previous Article in Journal
Deep Learning-Based Ultrasonic Testing to Evaluate the Porosity of Additively Manufactured Parts with Rough Surfaces
Previous Article in Special Issue
The COOL-Process—A Selective Approach for Recycling Lithium Batteries
Review

Challenges in Ecofriendly Battery Recycling and Closed Material Cycles: A Perspective on Future Lithium Battery Generations

1
Institute of Particle Technology, TU Braunschweig, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Battery LabFactory Braunschweig, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshikazu Ito
Metals 2021, 11(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020291
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
The global use of lithium-ion batteries of all types has been increasing at a rapid pace for many years. In order to achieve the goal of an economical and sustainable battery industry, the recycling and recirculation of materials is a central element on this path. As the achievement of high 95% recovery rates demanded by the European Union for some metals from today’s lithium ion batteries is already very challenging, the question arises of how the process chains and safety of battery recycling as well as the achievement of closed material cycles are affected by the new lithium battery generations, which are supposed to enter the market in the next 5 to 10 years. Based on a survey of the potential development of battery technology in the next years, where a diversification between high-performance and cost-efficient batteries is expected, and today’s knowledge on recycling, the challenges and chances of the new battery generations regarding the development of recycling processes, hazards in battery dismantling and recycling, as well as establishing a circular economy are discussed. It becomes clear that the diversification and new developments demand a proper separation of battery types before recycling, for example by a transnational network of dismantling and sorting locations, and flexible and high sophisticated recycling processes with case-wise higher safety standards than today. Moreover, for the low-cost batteries, recycling of the batteries becomes economically unattractive, so legal stipulations become important. However, in general, it must be still secured that closing the material cycle for all battery types with suitable processes is achieved to secure the supply of raw materials and also to further advance new developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery; LIB; battery recycling; mechanical recycling processes; hydrometallurgy; pyrometallurgy; battery generation; circular economy; solid state batteries lithium-ion battery; LIB; battery recycling; mechanical recycling processes; hydrometallurgy; pyrometallurgy; battery generation; circular economy; solid state batteries
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Doose, S.; Mayer, J.K.; Michalowski, P.; Kwade, A. Challenges in Ecofriendly Battery Recycling and Closed Material Cycles: A Perspective on Future Lithium Battery Generations. Metals 2021, 11, 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020291

AMA Style

Doose S, Mayer JK, Michalowski P, Kwade A. Challenges in Ecofriendly Battery Recycling and Closed Material Cycles: A Perspective on Future Lithium Battery Generations. Metals. 2021; 11(2):291. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020291

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doose, Stefan, Julian K. Mayer, Peter Michalowski, and Arno Kwade. 2021. "Challenges in Ecofriendly Battery Recycling and Closed Material Cycles: A Perspective on Future Lithium Battery Generations" Metals 11, no. 2: 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020291

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop