Next Article in Journal
Study on the Hot Cracking Law of Inconel 690/52M Welding Material on F304LN Base Metal by Multi-Layer Cladding
Next Article in Special Issue
Chalcopyrite Leaching with Hydrogen Peroxide and Iodine Species in Acidic Chloride Media at Room Temperature: Technical and Economic Evaluation
Previous Article in Journal
Formation and Properties of Nitrocarburizing S-Phase on AISI 316L Stainless Steel-Based WC Composite Layers by Low-Temperature Plasma Nitriding
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of the Dynamics of Rougher Cells on the Basis of Phenomenological Models and Discrete Event Simulation Framework
Review

Gangues and Clays Minerals as Rate-Limiting Factors in Copper Heap Leaching: A Review

1
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique 1100000, Chile
2
MiMeR—Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden
3
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Firat University, Elazığ 23119, Turkey
4
Escuela De Ingeniería Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica De Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
5
Departamento De Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Minas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexandre Chagnes
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101539
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flotation and Leaching Processes in Metallurgy)
Heap leaching is a firm extractive metallurgical technology facilitating the economical processing of different kinds of low-grade ores that are otherwise not exploited. Nevertheless, regardless of much development since it was first used, the process advantages are restricted by low recoveries and long extraction times. It is becoming progressively clear that the selection of heap leaching as an appropriate technology to process a specific mineral resource that is both environmentally sound and economically feasible very much relies on having an ample understanding of the essential underlying mechanisms of the processes and how they interrelate with the specific mineralogy of the ore body under concern. This paper provides a critical overview of the role of gangues and clays minerals as rate-limiting factors in copper heap leaching operations. We aim to assess and deliver detailed descriptions and discussions on the relations between different gangues and clays minerals and their impacts on the operational parameters and chemical dynamics in the copper heap leaching processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrometallurgy; leaching; gangues; clays minerals; heap leaching; agglomeration hydrometallurgy; leaching; gangues; clays minerals; heap leaching; agglomeration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Toro, N.; Ghorbani, Y.; Turan, M.D.; Robles, P.; Gálvez, E. Gangues and Clays Minerals as Rate-Limiting Factors in Copper Heap Leaching: A Review. Metals 2021, 11, 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101539

AMA Style

Toro N, Ghorbani Y, Turan MD, Robles P, Gálvez E. Gangues and Clays Minerals as Rate-Limiting Factors in Copper Heap Leaching: A Review. Metals. 2021; 11(10):1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toro, Norman, Yousef Ghorbani, Mehmet D. Turan, Pedro Robles, and Edelmira Gálvez. 2021. "Gangues and Clays Minerals as Rate-Limiting Factors in Copper Heap Leaching: A Review" Metals 11, no. 10: 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101539

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop