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Epigenomes 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes3010006

The Relevance of Gender in Tumor-Influencing Epigenetic Traits

Department Life Sciences, IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems, 3500 Krems an der Donau, Austria
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Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Methylation in Development and Cancer)
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Abstract

Tumorigenesis as well as the molecular orchestration of cancer progression are very complex mechanisms that comprise numerous elements of influence and regulation. Today, many of the major concepts are well described and a basic understanding of a tumor’s fine-tuning is given. Throughout the last decade epigenetics has been featured in cancer research and it is now clear that the underlying mechanisms, especially DNA and histone modifications, are important regulators of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Another key regulator, which is well known but has been neglected in scientific approaches as well as molecular diagnostics and, consequently, treatment conceptualization for a long time, is the subtle influence patient gender has on molecular processes. Naturally, this is greatly based on hormonal differences, but from an epigenetic point of view, the diverse susceptibility to stress and environmental influences is of prime interest. In this review we present the current view on which and how epigenetic modifications, emphasizing DNA methylation, regulate various tumor diseases. It is our aim to elucidate gender and epigenetics and their interconnectedness, which will contribute to understanding of the prospect molecular orchestration of cancer in individual tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; gender medicine; DNA methylation; tumor marker; sex; carcinogenesis; precision medicine epigenetics; gender medicine; DNA methylation; tumor marker; sex; carcinogenesis; precision medicine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sarne, V.; Braunmueller, S.; Rakob, L.; Seeboeck, R. The Relevance of Gender in Tumor-Influencing Epigenetic Traits. Epigenomes 2019, 3, 6.

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