In addition to the genetic variations, recent evidence has shown that DNA methylation of both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) underlies the pathogenesis of pediatric cancer. Given the high mortality rate, there is an urgent need to study the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenicity of pediatric cancer. Over the past decades, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled us to perform genome-wide screening to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of 5mC and 5hmC underlying pediatric tumorigenesis. To shed light on recent developments on pediatric cancer predisposition and tumor progression, here we discuss the role of both genome-wide and locus-specific dysregulation of 5mC and 5hmC in hematopoiesis malignancy and neuroblastoma, the most common types of pediatric cancer, together with their therapeutic potential.
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