(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a specialist parasitoid that is used for the control of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum
(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). We investigated how temperature affects the body-size, life-time oviposition, and longevity of E. warrae
at different stages of life. The body-sizes of both this parasitoid and its host are influenced by temperature. Body-volume indices that reflect body-sizes fell by 47.7 % in T. vaporariorum
compared with 57.6% in E. warrae
when temperature increased from 20 to 32 °C. The life-time oviposition of female adults of E. warrae
that grew at the immature developmental temperature of 20 °C was 86 ± 22 eggs, more than 66 ± 11 eggs at 26 °C, and 65 ± 23 eggs at 32 °C. Besides the influence on fecundity, temperature also influences the oviposition behaviour at the adult stage. More eggs were oviposited at 20 and 26 °C than at 32 °C. Higher temperatures reduced survival in the immature developmental stages and longevity in adults. Adult females lived for a maximum of 8.9 ± 1.8 days at 20 °C and laid a maximum of 97.4 ± 23.2 eggs when reared at 20 °C and maintained at 26 °C as adults. Adult body-size is positively correlated with life-time oviposition but not adult longevity. The results imply that temperature influences the nature of interactions between a parasitoid and its host. Larger wasps can live longer and parasitise more hosts, which should improve their performance as biological control agents.
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