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Article

A Paper-Based Analytical Device for Analysis of Paraquat in Urine and Its Validation with Optical-Based Approaches

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
2
School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
4
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Automation and Control, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
6
Spectrochip Inc., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
7
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
8
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Centre, Kidney Research Centre, Centre for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010006
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 20 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Diagnostic Kit Development for Laboratory Diagnosis)
Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide. Paraquat poisoning is often fatal and is an important public health threat in many places. The quick identification and timely initiation of treatment based on timely analysis of the paraquat concentration in urine/serum could improve the prognosis for patients. However, current paraquat concentration measurements are time-consuming and difficult to implement due to the expensive and bulky equipment required. To address these practical challenges, paper-based devices have emerged as alternative diagnostic tools for improving point-of-care testing. In this study, we demonstrate the successful use of a paper-based analytical device for the accurate detection of urine paraquat concentration. The developed paper-based analytical device employs colorimetric paraquat concentration measurements. The R2 value for the urine paraquat standard curve was 0.9989, with a dynamic range of 0–100 ppm. The limit of detection was 3.01 ppm. Two other optical-based approaches, Spectrochip and NanoDrop, were used for comparison. The results suggest that the developed paper-based analytical device is comparable to other colorimetric measurements, as determined by Bland–Altman analysis. The device was clinically validated using urine from six paraquat-poisoned patients. The results prove that the developed paper-based analytical device is accurate, easy-to-use, and efficient for urine paraquat concentration measurement, and may enable physicians to improve clinical management. View Full-Text
Keywords: paraquat poisoning; paper-based analytical device; point-of-care testing paraquat poisoning; paper-based analytical device; point-of-care testing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, T.-Y.; Lee, Y.-T.; Chen, H.-Y.; Ko, C.-H.; Hong, C.-T.; Wen, J.-W.; Yen, T.-H.; Cheng, C.-M. A Paper-Based Analytical Device for Analysis of Paraquat in Urine and Its Validation with Optical-Based Approaches. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010006

AMA Style

Wang T-Y, Lee Y-T, Chen H-Y, Ko C-H, Hong C-T, Wen J-W, Yen T-H, Cheng C-M. A Paper-Based Analytical Device for Analysis of Paraquat in Urine and Its Validation with Optical-Based Approaches. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Tse-Yao; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Hsien-Yi; Ko, Cheng-Hao; Hong, Chi-Tsung; Wen, Jyun-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Cheng, Chao-Min. 2021. "A Paper-Based Analytical Device for Analysis of Paraquat in Urine and Its Validation with Optical-Based Approaches" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010006

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