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Article

Hydrophilic Biocompatible Poly(Acrylic Acid-co-Maleic Acid) Polymer as a Surface-Coating Ligand of Ultrasmall Gd2O3 Nanoparticles to Obtain a High r1 Value and T1 MR Images

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 41566, Korea
2
Division of Applied RI, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul 01812, Korea
3
Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 41944, Korea
4
Department of Biology Education, Teachers’ College, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 41566, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010002
Received: 14 October 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques in Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
The water proton spin relaxivity, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility of nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents depend on the surface-coating ligands. Here, poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) (PAAMA) (Mw = ~3000 amu) is explored as a surface-coating ligand of ultrasmall gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles. Owing to the numerous carboxylic groups in PAAMA, which allow its strong conjugation with the nanoparticle surfaces and the attraction of abundant water molecules to the nanoparticles, the synthesized PAAMA-coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles (davg = 1.8 nm and aavg = 9.0 nm) exhibit excellent colloidal stability, extremely low cellular toxicity, and a high longitudinal water proton spin relaxivity (r1) of 40.6 s−1mM−1 (r2/r1 = 1.56, where r2 = transverse water proton spin relaxivity), which is approximately 10 times higher than those of commercial molecular contrast agents. The effectiveness of PAAMA-coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a T1 MRI contrast agent is confirmed by the high positive contrast enhancements of the in vivo T1 MR images at the 3.0 T MR field. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid); ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticle; relaxivity; colloidal stability; biocompatibility; magnetic resonance imaging agent poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid); ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticle; relaxivity; colloidal stability; biocompatibility; magnetic resonance imaging agent
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, Y.-J.; Liu, S.; Yue, H.; Park, J.A.; Cha, H.; Ho, S.L.; Marasini, S.; Ghazanfari, A.; Ahmad, M.Y.; Miao, X.; Tegafaw, T.; Chae, K.-S.; Chang, Y.; Lee, G.H. Hydrophilic Biocompatible Poly(Acrylic Acid-co-Maleic Acid) Polymer as a Surface-Coating Ligand of Ultrasmall Gd2O3 Nanoparticles to Obtain a High r1 Value and T1 MR Images. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010002

AMA Style

Jang Y-J, Liu S, Yue H, Park JA, Cha H, Ho SL, Marasini S, Ghazanfari A, Ahmad MY, Miao X, Tegafaw T, Chae K-S, Chang Y, Lee GH. Hydrophilic Biocompatible Poly(Acrylic Acid-co-Maleic Acid) Polymer as a Surface-Coating Ligand of Ultrasmall Gd2O3 Nanoparticles to Obtain a High r1 Value and T1 MR Images. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jang, Yeong-Ji, Shuwen Liu, Huan Yue, Ji A. Park, Hyunsil Cha, Son L. Ho, Shanti Marasini, Adibehalsadat Ghazanfari, Mohammad Y. Ahmad, Xu Miao, Tirusew Tegafaw, Kwon-Seok Chae, Yongmin Chang, and Gang H. Lee 2021. "Hydrophilic Biocompatible Poly(Acrylic Acid-co-Maleic Acid) Polymer as a Surface-Coating Ligand of Ultrasmall Gd2O3 Nanoparticles to Obtain a High r1 Value and T1 MR Images" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010002

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