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Review

The Role of Gut, Vaginal, and Urinary Microbiome in Urinary Tract Infections: From Bench to Bedside

1
University Centre Varaždin, University North, 42 000 Varaždin, Croatia
2
Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr. Zora Profozić Polyclinic, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Center for Translational and Clinical Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Division of Electronics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
5
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Haematology, University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010007
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urinary Tract Infection: Diagnosis, Treatment and Management)
The current paradigm of urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis takes into account the contamination of the periurethral space by specific uropathogens residing in the gut, which is followed by urethral colonization and pathogen ascension to the urinary bladder. Consequently, studying the relationship between gut microbiota and the subsequent development of bacteriuria and UTI represents an important field of research. However, the well-established diagnostic and therapeutic paradigm for urinary tract infections (UTIs) has come into question with the discovery of a multifaceted, symbiotic microbiome in the healthy urogenital tract. More specifically, emerging data suggest that vaginal dysbiosis may result in Escherichia coli colonization and prompt recurrent UTIs, while urinary microbiome perturbations may precede the development of UTIs and other pathologic conditions of the urinary system. The question is whether these findings can be exploited for risk reduction and treatment purposes. This review aimed to appraise the three aforementioned specific microbiomes regarding their potential influence on UTI development by focusing on the recent studies in the field and assessing the potential linkages between these different niches, as well as evaluating the state of translational research for novel therapeutic and preventative approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; microbiota; gut microbiome; vaginal microbiome; urobiome; urinary tract; urinary tract infection; UTI; bacteriuria; dysbiosis microbiome; microbiota; gut microbiome; vaginal microbiome; urobiome; urinary tract; urinary tract infection; UTI; bacteriuria; dysbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meštrović, T.; Matijašić, M.; Perić, M.; Čipčić Paljetak, H.; Barešić, A.; Verbanac, D. The Role of Gut, Vaginal, and Urinary Microbiome in Urinary Tract Infections: From Bench to Bedside. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010007

AMA Style

Meštrović T, Matijašić M, Perić M, Čipčić Paljetak H, Barešić A, Verbanac D. The Role of Gut, Vaginal, and Urinary Microbiome in Urinary Tract Infections: From Bench to Bedside. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meštrović, Tomislav, Mario Matijašić, Mihaela Perić, Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Anja Barešić, and Donatella Verbanac. 2021. "The Role of Gut, Vaginal, and Urinary Microbiome in Urinary Tract Infections: From Bench to Bedside" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010007

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