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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Various Types of Muscle Contraction with Different Running Conditions on Mouse Humerus Morphology

1
Graduate Course of Health and Social Services, Graduate School of Saitama Prefectural University, Saitama 343-8540, Japan
2
Research Fellowship for Young Scientists, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
3
Department of Health and Social Services, Saitama Prefectural University, Saitama 343-8540, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hugues Portier and Stéphane Pallu
Life 2021, 11(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040284
Received: 20 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 27 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Physical Exercises on Bone Activities)
How various types of muscle contraction during exercises affect bone formation remains unclear. This study aimed to determine how exercises with different muscle contraction types affect bone morphology. In total, 20 mice were used and divided into four groups: Control, Level, Down Slow, and Down. Different types of muscle contraction were induced by changing the running angle of the treadmill. After the intervention, micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase/alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, and immunohistochemical staining were used to analyze the humerus head, tendon-to-bone attachment, and humerus diaphyseal region. Micro-CT found that the volume ratio of the humeral head, the volume of the tendon-to-bone attachment region, and the area of the humeral diaphyseal region increased in the Down group. However, no difference was detected in bone morphology between the Level and Down Slow groups. In addition, histology showed activation of ALP in the subarticular subchondral region in the Down Slow and Down groups and the fibrocartilage region in the tendon-to-bone attachment. Moreover, Osterix increased predominantly in the Down Slow and Down groups.Overall bone morphological changes in the humerus occur only when overuse is added to EC-dominant activity. Furthermore, different type of muscle contractile activities might promote bone formation in a site-specific manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; muscle contraction; bone; tendon-to-bone attachment exercise; muscle contraction; bone; tendon-to-bone attachment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ozone, K.; Oka, Y.; Minegishi, Y.; Kano, T.; Kokubun, T.; Murata, K.; Kanemura, N. Effect of Various Types of Muscle Contraction with Different Running Conditions on Mouse Humerus Morphology. Life 2021, 11, 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040284

AMA Style

Ozone K, Oka Y, Minegishi Y, Kano T, Kokubun T, Murata K, Kanemura N. Effect of Various Types of Muscle Contraction with Different Running Conditions on Mouse Humerus Morphology. Life. 2021; 11(4):284. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozone, Kaichi; Oka, Yuichiro; Minegishi, Yuki; Kano, Takuma; Kokubun, Takanori; Murata, Kenji; Kanemura, Naohiko. 2021. "Effect of Various Types of Muscle Contraction with Different Running Conditions on Mouse Humerus Morphology" Life 11, no. 4: 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040284

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