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Open AccessArticle

Fatty Liver, and Not Visceral Fat, Is More Associated with Liver Fibrosis and Diabetes in Non-Obese Japanese Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of General Internal Medicine 2, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-6-1 Nakasange, Kitaku, Okayama City, Okayama 700-8505, Japan
2
Department of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-6-1 Nakasange, Kitaku, Okayama City, Okayama 700-8505, Japan
3
Department of Health Care Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-6-1 Nakasange, Kitaku, Okayama City, Okayama 700-8505, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2020, 10(9), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10090175
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 August 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Liver Syndrome)
Asians are known to be more likely than Westerners to develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases in spite of their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL (−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had a higher number of males, BMI, abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels, and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels, FIB4 index, and the number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urata, N.; Kawanaka, M.; Nishino, K.; Ishii, K.; Tanikawa, T.; Suehiro, M.; Sasai, T.; Haruma, K.; Kawamoto, H.; Nakamura, J.; Manabe, N.; Kamada, T. Fatty Liver, and Not Visceral Fat, Is More Associated with Liver Fibrosis and Diabetes in Non-Obese Japanese Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study. Life 2020, 10, 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10090175

AMA Style

Urata N, Kawanaka M, Nishino K, Ishii K, Tanikawa T, Suehiro M, Sasai T, Haruma K, Kawamoto H, Nakamura J, Manabe N, Kamada T. Fatty Liver, and Not Visceral Fat, Is More Associated with Liver Fibrosis and Diabetes in Non-Obese Japanese Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study. Life. 2020; 10(9):175. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10090175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Urata, Noriyo; Kawanaka, Miwa; Nishino, Ken; Ishii, Katsunori; Tanikawa, Tomohiro; Suehiro, Mitsuhiko; Sasai, Takako; Haruma, Ken; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Jun; Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari. 2020. "Fatty Liver, and Not Visceral Fat, Is More Associated with Liver Fibrosis and Diabetes in Non-Obese Japanese Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study" Life 10, no. 9: 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10090175

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