On the Direct Extrusion of Solder Wire from 52In-48Sn Alloy
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Mathematical Modeling for the Extrusion Process
3.2. Extrusion Temperature Simulation in QForm Software
3.3. Experimental Studies of Wire and Rods Extrusion
- A mathematical model of direct extrusion has been developed, which allows us to calculate extrusion ratio, extrusion speed and pressing force. The discrepancy between the calculated and experimental results does not exceed 10%.
- In mathematical modeling, it was found that a decrease in the friction coefficient from 0.4 to 0.1 reduces the force at the start of pressing from 97 to 71 kN when extruding a 2.0 mm wire and from 94 to 54 kN when extruding a rod of Ø8.0 mm.
- The temperature of the solder and the tool the extrusion process is determined by simulation in software QForm, based on the finite element method. With an increase in the pressing speed from 0.5 to 3 mm/s, the maximum temperature of the Ø2 mm solder increases by 2.2 times and 1.3 times when pressing a rod Ø8.0 mm. The temperature with an increase in the pressing speed from 0.5 to 3.0 mm/s increases from 33.4 to 75.8 °C for 2.0 mm wire and from 22.5 to 30 °C for Ø8.0 mm rod. With successive pressing of four billets, the maximum temperature of Ø2.0 mm wire of solder increases to 79 °C, and the maximum temperature of the container increases by 10 °C.
- An experimental study has established that the use of graphite lubricant makes it possible to reduce the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.05, which reduces the temperature of the solder at the die exit from 30 to 22 °C when manufacturing a rod Ø8.0 mm at a pressing speed of 3 mm/s.
- Visual and microstructural analysis of the rod and wire showed their compliance with the customer’s requirements. The microstructure is a eutectic of phases γ and β. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the 52In-48Sn alloy showed that the solder obtained by direct extrusion has a uniform distribution of structural phases.
- The developed technology can be used in the manufacture of wires and rods from other low-melting alloys. In continuation of the work already done, it is planned to improve the tools and technology for obtaining rosin core solder wire.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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(at 22 °C)
|Thermal Conductivity, W/mK|
(at 85 °C)
|Specific Electrical Resistance,|
(at 22 °C)
|Ultimate Tensile Strength, MPa||Elongation, %|
(at 22 °C)
|Brinell Hardness, HB|
(at 22 °C)
|Billet length, L||mm||120||120|
|Billet material yield strength, σ||MPa||10.5||10.5|
|Half-angle of the die, α||°||18.4||40|
|Friction coefficient, f||-||0.5||0.5|
|Extrusion ratio, μ||-||118.8||16.0|
|without Lubrication||with Graphite Lubricant|
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Faizov, S.; Sarafanov, A.; Erdakov, I.; Gromov, D.; Svistun, A.; Glebov, L.; Bykov, V.; Bryk, A.; Radionova, L. On the Direct Extrusion of Solder Wire from 52In-48Sn Alloy. Machines 2021, 9, 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9050093
Faizov S, Sarafanov A, Erdakov I, Gromov D, Svistun A, Glebov L, Bykov V, Bryk A, Radionova L. On the Direct Extrusion of Solder Wire from 52In-48Sn Alloy. Machines. 2021; 9(5):93. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9050093Chicago/Turabian Style
Faizov, Sergei, Aleksandr Sarafanov, Ivan Erdakov, Dmitry Gromov, Alexandra Svistun, Lev Glebov, Vitaly Bykov, Anastasia Bryk, and Liudmila Radionova. 2021. "On the Direct Extrusion of Solder Wire from 52In-48Sn Alloy" Machines 9, no. 5: 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9050093