Next Article in Journal
Lake-Level-Fluctuation Control on Shale Oil Enrichment of the Salinized Lacustrine Organic-Rich Shale in the Paleogene Biyang Depression, East China
Next Article in Special Issue
Calcium Orthophosphate–Clay Composites—Preparation, Characterisation, and Applications: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics of Electrical Resistance Alteration during In Situ Leaching of Ion-Adsorption-Type Rare Earth Ore
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clay/Fly Ash Bricks Evaluated in Terms of Kaolin and Vermiculite Precursors of Mullite and Forsterite, and Photocatalytic Decomposition of the Methanol–Water Mixture
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Applications of Clays in Nanocomposites and Ceramics

Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Vavreckova 5669, 76001 Zlín, Czech Republic
Nanotechnology Centre, CEET, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Vavreckova 5669, 76001 Zlín, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 93;
Submission received: 2 December 2023 / Revised: 7 January 2024 / Accepted: 9 January 2024 / Published: 13 January 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clay Minerals and Waste Fly Ash Ceramics, Volume II)


Clays and clay minerals are common natural materials, the unique properties of which have attracted the interest of the industry, especially because these materials are easily available, cheap, and non-toxic. Clays and clay minerals are widely used in many applications, such as in ceramic production, in the clarification of liquids, pollutant adsorbers, filler in composites and nanocomposites, soil amendments, in pharmacy, etc. This review assesses the development in the area of clay application in nanocomposites and ceramics. The first part of this study covers polymer/clay nanocomposites. Topics of interest include nanofiller sources for polymer nanocomposites, the possible ways of clay modification, polymer/clay nanocomposite classification and their processing, and polymer matrix overview with possible enhancement of nanocomposite properties. Some of the applications have already been commercialized. Approximately 80% of the polymer/clay nanocomposites are destined for the automotive, aeronautical, and packaging industries. The second part of this study describes ceramic materials with a focus on silicate ceramics. Talc and kaolinite represent the main natural raw materials for traditional ceramic applications. Less traditional cordierite, steatite, and forsterite could offer property enhancement and seem to be useful in electronics, electrical engineering, catalysts, solar thermal storage, or medical applications.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

In the last century, the research in the area of nanotechnology started new technological development. The term “nanotechnology” was used first by the Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi in 1974 [1]. Nanotechnology works in the area of incredibly small dimensions, in the range of 1–100 nm. A nanometer (nm) is 10−9 m, smaller than the wavelength of visible light and a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. In some senses, nanoscience and nanotechnologies are not new. Nanostructured and nanocomposite materials are commonly found in nature and living beings (such as bone) [2]. Also, chemists make polymers, which are large molecules made up of nanoscale subunits [3].
“Synthetic” polymer/clay nanocomposites have their origin in the pioneering research at Toyota Central Research Laboratories. In addition, the first practical application of nanocomposites, the nylon/montmorillonite timing belt cover on the Toyota Camry automobile, relates to this company as well. Nowadays, the PA/clay nanocomposites have the largest commercial presence in the application field. The global nanocomposites market size was USD 5.6 billion in 2022 and is likely to reach USD 18.3 billion by 2031 [4]. The market growth is attributed to the rapid increase in the use of nanocomposites in biomedical applications and packaging. Further, rising demand for nanocomposites has been recorded also in the sectors of aviation, sporting goods, and automobile parts [4].
Despite the development in the area of polymer nanocomposites and their expanding use in different applications, research in polymer science and nanotechnology continues. Especially, it is necessary to understand the principles of nanocomposite behavior at the nanometric level.
Clays and clay minerals have been accompanying humans since the dawn of history. Clays and clay minerals, raw or after modification, have great importance in a wide variety of applications mainly due to their abundant, inexpensive, inertness, stability, reactivity, and environmentally friendly [5,6]. Clays are naturally occurring materials consisting primarily of the various clay minerals content and degree of purity [5,7,8,9]. Clay minerals belong to the phyllosilicate group with a layered structure and with one dimension in the nanometer range [5,9]. The principal building elements of the clay minerals are two-dimensional sheets of silicon-oxygen tetrahedral and two-dimensional sheets of aluminum- or magnesium-oxygen-hydroxyl octahedral [10]. Individual clay minerals, such as kaolin, clay, bentonite, and vermiculite, differ significantly in their composition and crystal structure which causes different physical and chemical properties (e.g., particle size, surface chemistry, surface area, viscosity, plasticity, absorption, and adsorption) [7,8,11]. In many cases, the clays or clay minerals can be modified to obtain improved mechanical, thermal, structural, or functional properties.
Clays and clay minerals have many industrial applications such as ceramics [12,13], paper coatings [14,15], pesticides [16], paints [17,18], pharmaceuticals [19,20], agriculture [21,22], construction industry [23], ion exchangers, separators, plastics [24,25,26], cosmetics [27], insulations [28], and electrical applications. Clay minerals can also be used as a good adsorbent for water purification due to lamellar structure, high cation exchange capacity, pore size distribution, and large surface area [29]. Moreover, considerable attention obtained the clay composite or nanocomposite materials which can be incorporated into many areas such as biomedical, construction, automobile, remediation technology, petroleum industry, wastewater, treatment, aerospace, and nanotechnology [30].
In ceramic technology, the most important and most widely used natural raw materials also belong to clay minerals such as kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, talc, pyrophyllite, and serpentine [31]. Generally, ceramic materials show a combination of useful properties such as high strength and stiffness at very high temperatures, chemical inertness, and low density. Their applications are restricted owing to their brittle behavior. Cordierite, enstatite, and forsterite are silicate materials that form the main components of the ternary system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. One of the methods for the synthesis of these ceramic types is the sintering of natural raw materials including clay and clay minerals, especially kaolinite, talc, and a combination of both minerals. The important properties relating to applications of clay minerals in the ceramic industry are plasticity, chemical and mineralogical composition, thermal properties, color, and mechanical strength after firing [32]. Extensive research is also carried out in the field of ceramics. Nanoceramics have emerged as valuable materials in biomedicine and medical technology (orthopedics and bone tissue engineering). In bone repair, nanoceramics serve as nano scaffolds to support and facilitate bone growth. Applications in energy storage, coating systems, environmental technology (water treatment), chemistry, construction, electronics, and batteries have also been reported [33].
This review is divided into two main parts. The first part describes the use of clays and clay minerals in nanocomposites mainly in polymer/clay nanocomposites and their applications. The second part, concerning ceramic materials, provides a summary of clay and clay minerals used in pre-ceramic mixtures, types of final silicate ceramics, and their applications.

2. Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

2.1. Nanofiller Sources

Nanoparticles have at least one characteristic length scale that is of the order of nanometers and can range from isotropic to highly anisotropic needle-like to sheet-like elements. These nanoelements can lead to ultra-large interfacial areas between the constituents. In addition, the distance between the nanoelements begins to approach molecular dimensions at extremely low loading of the nanoparticles. This large internal interfacial area and the nanoscopic dimensions between constituents differentiate polymer nanocomposites from traditional composites [34]. Nanofillers can be different types of materials like carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, carbon black, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), silica, and phyllosilicates (montorillonite, halloysite, and vermiculite). MXene, nanofibers, metals, and their oxides are also used. One of the most common sources of nanofillers is a clay mineral called montmorillonite (MMT).


Montmorillonite has become one of the most widely used minerals as nanofillers, because of the versatility of reactions, layered morphology with a high aspect ratio, and large specific area, which offers substantial cation exchange capacities. Additionally, MMT is commercially available.
MMT is a naturally occurring mineral derived from the weathering of volcanic ash. This mineral belongs to the clay minerals of the smectite family. MMT represents 2:1 layered aluminous-silicate. The suggested crystallographic structure for montmorillonite is in Figure 1 [35]. Isomorphous substitutions of Si4+ for Al3+ in the tetrahedral lattice and of Al3+ for Mg2+ in the octahedral sheet cause an excess of negative charges within the montmorillonite layers. All atoms may also be replaced by Fe3+, Ti, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Mn [36]. In many minerals, an atom of lower positive valence replaces one of higher valence. These negative charges are counterbalanced by cations such as Ca2+ and Na+ situated between the layers.
Due to the high hydrophilicity of montmorillonite, water molecules are usually also present between the layers. Stacking of the layers leads to regular van der Waals gaps called interlayers or galleries. The sum of the single layer thickness and the interlayer represents the repeat unit of the multilayer material, so-called d-spacing or basal spacing.

2.2. Clay Organophilization

The main difficulties for polymer/clay nanocomposites relate to the hygroscopic character of clay and clay minerals. It is relatively simple to disperse clay in water or water-soluble polymer monomers, but clay dispersed in a high molecular hydrophobic polymer is like trying to mix oil in water. The reason for such behavior is the different nature of these two materials as was mentioned above. Organophilic polymers are not miscible with pristine hydrophilic clay represented in our case by montmorillonite (MMT). This phenomenon is attributed to the higher surface energy of MMT compared to a macromolecular matrix which tends to create a stronger cohesive interaction between clay layers and further hamper the inclusion of polymer chains into the interlamellar region of MMT [37,38,39,40,41]. Therefore, surface modification of MMT plays a very important role in clay incorporation into the polymer matrix. The process leading to nanocomposite is called delamination or exfoliation of montmorillonite to individual sheets. On the other hand, the hydrophilic feature of the MMT surface permits water and other polar molecules to intercalate into the galleries within clay layers [37].
The clay modification process, called intercalation (1 chemical agent) or co-intercalation (2 or more chemical agents), can be defined as the reversible inclusion of a molecule or ion into filler with a layered structure. In the case of layered aluminous silicates (phylosilicates), intercalation means intercalant penetration into the clay-layered structure. The result of such a successful process is an increase in d-spacing, Figure 2. Next, the changes depend on the type of used intercalant, its concentration, and the length of the chain. The clay affinity to the polymer surface is influenced and the intercalation more compatible montmorillonite-polymer interface can be then developed.
Amino acids were employed as the first intercalants in the synthesis of nanocomposites (polyamide 6-clay hybrids) [42]. Numerous other kinds of intercalant agents have been used in the synthesis of nanocomposites today’s. The most popular are cationic surfactants, such as alkylammonium ions, because they can be exchanged easily with the ions situated between the clay layers. All the commercial types of montmorillonites are based on these substances. This kind of surfactant consists of two distinct parts, a positively charged hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain tail. After modification, cationic surfactant molecules attach to the inner and outer surface of clay minerals and thus alter the surface properties of clay minerals from hydrophilic to hydrophobic [43]. In addition, silanes have been used because of their ability to react with the hydroxyl groups situated at the surface and the edges of the clay layers.
Smectite organically intercalated structures were first studied by Lagaly and Weis in 1969. After modification, several arrangements inside the interlayer are possible Figure 3. Lagaly and Weis found two possible arrangements of organic molecules in the interlayer, namely lateral and perpendicular (paraffin) [44,45].
At present three basic methods of intercalation are performed:
  • Ion-exchange method is based on the MMT’s ability to sorb some types of cations and to keep them in the change state [46,47].
  • Ion-dipole method is based on the ion-dipole interaction of an organic intercalant and an interlayer cation [48]
  • Grafting, the formation of a covalent linkage between the clay platelet and the hydrophobic part of the coupling agent [37].

2.2.1. Ion-Exchange Intercalation

A characteristic feature of smectites such as montmorillonite is their ability to sorb certain cations and retain them in an exchangeable state. It means that these intercalated cations can be exchanged by treatment of other cations in a water solution (wet method), Figure 4. The most common exchangeable cations are Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, K+, and NH4+. Indeed, if the clay is placed in a solution of a given electrolyte, an exchange occurs between the ions of the clay (X+) and those of the electrolyte (Y+):
X + Montmorillonite   + Y Y + Montmorillonite + X +
For given clay, the maximum number of cations that can be taken up is constant and known as the cation-exchange capacity (CEC). CEC is measured in milliequivalents per gram (meq/g) or more frequently per 100 g (meq/100 g). Cation-exchange capacity measurements are performed at a neutral pH of 7. The CEC of montmorillonite varies from 80 to 150 meq/100 g [50]. In the dependence on the CEC and the character of organocation, different structures can be created in the interlayer space. These structures could be helpful during the nanocomposite compounding and for the right choice of intercalant. The successful MMT intercalation and following exfoliation process during compounding is a good assumption for enhancement of final materials properties.

2.2.2. Ion-Dipole Intercalation

Ion-dipole method is based on ion-dipole interaction. This method differs from the ion-exchange approach in that the exchangeable cation (partial positive charge) remains on the clay surface, Figure 5. It means that it is not necessary to ablate any product of a chemical reaction. Next ion-dipole approach advantage relates to the non-water environment (dry method). As the intercalants, alkylamine (octadecylamine (ODA), dodecylamine (DDA)), and primary amine can be used. As the compatibilizer the common plastics processing aid, like plasticizers, lubricants, and other modifiers, could also be suitable [51,52,53]. The intercalate structure depends on the concentration of used organic intercalant, in the guest-guest and guest-host interactions. This technique is also possible to apply to process co-intercalation [54,55].

2.2.3. Grafting

The grafting approach has attracted scientists over the last 15 years. The method is based on the formation of covalent bonds between the montmorillonite platelet surface and the hydrophobic modifier. This method can improve the stability of organophilized clay surfaces. The most famous modifiers are silanes, therefore this process is called silanization or silylation. Alkoxysilane and chlorosilane are the most common intercalates. However, chlorosilane is not used too often due to its tendency to create HCl during the grafting process [56]. In addition to increased thermal stability, clay treatment by this approach offers irreversible coupling and tightly secures the agent on the clay surface, avoiding release into the environment to cause adverse effects [57]. Organosilanes also serve as a key bridge to enhance the interfacial interaction between the silylated-MMT and the polymer matrix owing to the reduced clay surface energy because of silane grafting, thus enabling better dispersibility of the reinforcing phase in the continuous matrix [37,58].

2.3. Clay Application in Nanocomposites

Generally, nanocomposites represent materials with multiphase ultrafine structures with at least one dimension 10−9 m. In the case of polymer/clay nanocomposites, they are formed through the connection of two different materials, organic (polymer) and inorganic (mineral). The next important features of polymer nanocomposites are low content of filler (1%–5%) compared to conventional composites (30%–50%), transparency, and large changes in material properties, like E-modulus, strength, shrinkage, density, chemical and fire resistance, etc.
The polymer nanocomposites could be divided into several groups according to the dimensions of the dispersed nanoscale:
  • Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials—2 dimensions in macroscale (layered silicate [59,60,61], graphene [62,63] or MXene [64,65]—lamellar nanofillers in the form of sheets of one to a few nanometres thick and hundreds to thousands of nanometres long and wide).
  • One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials—2dimensions in nanometres and the third is larger (nanofibers or nanotubes, e.g., carbon nanofibres and nanotubes [66] or halloysite nanotubes [67,68,69]—fibrillar nanoscale).
  • Zero-dimensional (0D) structures—0 dimensions in macroscale (spherical silica [70,71], semiconductor nanoclusters [72] and quantum dots [73], and isodimensional spherical particles) [74,75].
One of the processing problems of nanocomposites is the nanofiller exfoliation during processing. Therefore, polymer/clay systems are divided into four general groups according to the nanofiller exfoliation level (Figure 6):
  • Microcomposite, where the clay acts as a conventional filler. The final material belongs to traditional composite materials.
  • Intercalated nanocomposite consists of a regular insertion of the polymer between the clay layers. The final material belongs to nanocomposites.
  • Intercalated and partially delaminated nanocomposites, an intermediate step between intercalated and exfoliated structure. The final material belongs to nanocomposites.
  • Exfoliated nanocomposite where the filler is delaminated to 1 nm-thick layers. The final material belongs to nanocomposites.
Figure 6. Polymer/clay nanocomposite classification.
Figure 6. Polymer/clay nanocomposite classification.
Minerals 14 00093 g006

2.3.1. Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Processing

The final step of nanocomposite preparation is the organoclay mixing with polymer. Early experiments with clay-filled polymers required processing that was not commercially friendly, but this situation has changed. A primary difficulty is the proper dispersion of the filler in the polymer matrix. Without good dispersion and filler distribution, the high surface area is compromised, and the aggregates can act as defects, which limits their properties [2]. Several strategies have been considered to prepare polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites (Figure 7) [76]:
  • In-situ polymerization method, intercalation of a suitable monomer followed by polymerization. The first method used to synthesize polymer/clay nanocomposites is based on polyamide 6.
  • Solution method, intercalation of dissolved polymer from a solution. The drawback of this method is the requirement of a suitable solvent. It has been shown that intercalation only occurs for certain polymer/solvent or monomer/solvent pairs [77]. Nanocomposites based on high-density polyethylene [78], and polyimide [79] can be synthesized by this method.
  • Melt intercalation method, mixing the clay (usually organoclay) with the polymer matrix above its softening point in either static or flow conditions. The polymer chains spread from the molten mass into the silicate galleries to form either intercalated or delaminated hybrids according to the degree of penetration [56]. This process was first reported by Vaia et al. [80] in 1993. This method is relatively easy and allows for the use of current processing equipment for nanocomposite technology. Traditional processing techniques could be used for melt intercalation, like a two-roll mill, twin-screw extruder (PA, PP, PE, and PVC), injection molding, blow molding, and thermal spraying [2].
Figure 7. Illustration of (a) in situ polymerization, (b) melt intercalation, and (c) solution intercalation [76].
Figure 7. Illustration of (a) in situ polymerization, (b) melt intercalation, and (c) solution intercalation [76].
Minerals 14 00093 g007
Highly polar polymers such as Nylon [81,82,83] or polyimides [84,85] are more easily intercalated than non-polar polymers such as polypropylene because polar polymers have a higher affinity for the polar clay galleries. In situ polymerization monomer intercalates directly into the organically modified clay galleries and the monomer either can adsorb onto the layer surface or can be anchored by free radical techniques. Melt intercalation involves mixing the clay and a polymer melt with or without the shear. The success of melt intercalation is surprising, given that the gallery spacing is only about 2 nm and the radius of gyration of the polymer is significantly larger than this. Even more surprising is that the speed of melt intercalation is faster than that of the self-diffusion of polymers and scales with the inverse of the molecular weight. The results of molecular dynamics and experimental studies indicate that the stronger the clay/polymer interaction, the lower the intercalation rate. In addition, layer flexibility seems to control the mechanism of intercalation [2].

2.3.2. Polymer Matrix

Many different polymers have already been used to produce polymer/clay nanocomposites. Both thermoplastics and thermosets can be successfully utilized for the preparation of nanocomposites. Intensive research is carried out in rubber mixtures too. The first and the most studied thermoplastics for the synthesis of polymer-clay nanocomposites has been polyamide 6 [86,87,88,89,90,91]. Polyamide 6/clay hybrids were discovered by Toyota researchers in the early nineties [92,93,94,95] and nowadays they are used in automotive parts. The teams dealing with these materials were concentrated around Usuki A., Kojima Y., Okada A. [92,93,94,95,96], Azuma H. [97], Fukusima Y. [98], Wu T. [99], Devaux, E. [100], Tanaka G. [101], and Utracki L. A. [87,89,90].
Polyvinylchloride [8,102,103] nanocomposite processing was studied, in addition. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is an important commercial polymer. It is one of the most versatile and oldest thermoplastics. It is a material that offers several positive aspects like low cost, recoverability, facile processing, and excellent electrical and chemical resistance. Commonly, PVC is available in two broad categories: flexible PVC (plasticized one), and rigid PVC (unplasticized one). The PVC products range from piping and siding, door and window profiles, blood bags, and tubing, to wire and cable insulation and more. The first results dealing with PVC/MMT nanocomposites were presented at the international conferences ANTEC′01 and ANTEC′02 in the USA [104,105] by Kalendova et al. In this study, particularly the suspension type of PVC was employed for the polymer/clay nanocomposites development. The formulation for the PVC mixtures consists of 74% of PVC, 24% of plasticizer, and 2% of stabilizer. The natural type of montmorillonite and the organophilized one were tested. The melt intercalation was employed to produce nanocomposites. One of the important questions was how long alkyl chains should be used for the exfoliation of silicate layers. Therefore, alkylamines with different alkyl chain lengths were tested as the organic compatibilizer. Especially shorter alkyl chains were tested as suitable chemical modifiers of MMT. Firstly, Na+ montmorillonite was ion-dipole intercalated with dodecylamine (DDA, 12 C) and octylamine (OA, 8C) molecules. The structure of octadecylamine (ODA, 18 C) ion-dipole intercalated into MMT was described by Pospisil et al. previously [106]. The material structure was determined based on X-ray diffraction and molecular simulation results. Molecular mechanics and classical molecular dynamics were carried out in the Cerius2 modeling environment. Based on calculated values of interaction energies between two guest layers in the interlayer space of montmorillonite and XRD patterns, a probable intercalant molecules arrangement in the MMT interlayer was designed. It was confirmed by Pospisil [106], Figure 8, that ODA ion-dipole intercalated into MMT allows the existence of supramolecular structure which is presented by bilayer arrangement alkyl chains perpendicular or slightly oblique to the aluminosilicate layer. The results are consistent with the studies carried out by Lagaly [43,107,108,109] in the field of ion-exchange intercalation. In addition, the Octylamine (OA) ion-dipole intercalated was also not able to provide the bilayer arrangement in the MMT interlayer space. From the obtained data it follows that montmorillonite intercalated with short alkylamine chains suggests a disadvantage for polymer/MMT nanocomposite production.
In the past, the most important requirement for new synthetic polymers was their resistance to climate change [110]. Recently research has undergone substantial changes, due to the ecological problems caused by non-degradable polymer litter. These facts resulted in the research in the field of biopolymers. Currently, biodegradable polymers like polylactic acid (PLA) and Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) are studied successfully [111,112,113,114,115]. Poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) has a leading position in the market of biobased polymers and is one of the most promising sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based polymers [116]. PLA is not only bio-based but compostable and biodegradable through hydrolysis by microorganisms [117]. Recently, new techniques to produce high molecular weight PLA with relatively good properties, have led to the expansion of the product portfolio from the biomedical area to short service life applications (agriculture and packaging).
Nonetheless, predisposition to degradation, poor thermal resistance, and unsuitable mechanical and barrier properties limit industrial application for long-term performance products in automotive and electronic industries. For items such as these, resistance to degradation is required, unlike for disposable applications [118]. Further, high price is also an obstacle to greater expansion of PLA on the market. To address one of these limitations, nanoscale structured layered clay particles can be incorporated into PLA conferring strength, increasing its gas barrier properties [113,119,120], and ultimately allowing the nanocomposite to compete with conventional plastics in a wide range of applications [121,122,123]. A very important role of PLA is in short-term food packaging (bags). For long-term food storage, PLA offers insufficient barrier properties. Commercial products of multilayer packaging films consist of several layers created from different polymers. From the viewpoint of circular economy, separation and recycling of such multilayered material is impossible. An alternative to the traditional approach could be multilayered films from one material type, where the barrier layer could be based on the polymer/clay nanocomposites. Such films should offer uncomplicated recyclability. Kalendova et al. [113] describe the role of different modified motnmorillonites in the barrier properties of PLA/clay nanocomposites. The air, CO2, and water vapor permeability, along with morphology were investigated. The mixtures with Cloisite 10A and 30B give similar results with enhancement of more than 70% VWT after 24 h. The VWT data evaluated after 60 days show a drop in WVT, but still, the improvement is around 30% compared to pure PLA film. Further, the CO2 and air permeability show an improvement of more than 50% compared to pure PLA film, Table 1. The best barrier properties were exhibited by the sample with Cloisite 10A and Cloisite 30B. The barrier properties improvement is connected probably with the nanofiller arrangement in the polymer matrix, Figure 8, and filler aspect ratio. A large aspect ratio of nanoplatelets creates a more dramatic reduction in permeability, which was explained by Choudalakis G. and Lu C. [124,125].
Figure 8. TEM: (a) PLA/Na+ 5%, (b) PLA/10A 5%, and (c) PLA/30B 5% [113].
Figure 8. TEM: (a) PLA/Na+ 5%, (b) PLA/10A 5%, and (c) PLA/30B 5% [113].
Minerals 14 00093 g008
In the field of thermosets, epoxy resins, and unsaturated polyesters are studied intensively. The reason for this is that the reactants of epoxy systems have a suitable polarity to diffuse between the clay layers and form a delaminated nanocomposite upon polymerization. One of the most important phenomena is the self-polymerization of epoxy resin in organophilic smectite clays due to the presence of alkylammonium ions [126,127]. This phenomenon was studied by Pinnavaia et al. at Michigan State University [128,129].
Intensive research has been conducted on polyurethanes [130,131,132,133]. The non-polar polymers, polypropylene, and polyethylene nanocomposites have also been studied in recent years, but these non-polar materials are more difficult to prepare [134,135,136,137,138]. It can be concluded that polar systems are studied more intensively compared to non-polar polymers.
Finally, it could be concluded, that generally polar thermoplastics such as polyamide, polymethylmethacrylate [139,140], polystyrene [141,142], polyimide [143], polyethylene oxide [144], polyethylene terephthalate [145], polyvinylchloride [8,102,103,104,105], and polylactic acid [123,124,125] provide good prospects for the preparation of nanocomposites. The non-polar polymers, polypropylene, and polyethylene nanocomposites have also been studied in recent years, but these non-polar materials are more difficult to prepare [134,135,136,137]. It is still difficult to reach a well-exfoliated structure of the nanofiller in a polyolefine polymer matrix, despite the achievements in their research. To reduce the problems with the compatibility of PE, PP, and MMT, a new strategy is investigated. The non-polar polymer could be incorporated polar part of the polymer chain to gain better intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays in polymer [146,147]. Finally, it could be concluded that polar systems are studied more intensively compared to non-polar polymers.

2.3.3. Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Advantages

Nanocomposites offer performance similar to conventional polymeric composites (30%–50% of reinforcing material) only with very low filler loading (1%–5%) [148]. Generally, the nanocomposite advantages are connected with reduced weight for the same performance (lower density of composites), transparency, greater tensile and flexural strength for the same dimension of plastic part, improved gas barrier properties for the same film thickness, minimal loss of ductility (nanoparticles do not create large stress concentrations), increased dimensional stability (reduced shrinkage), flame retardant properties, and high chemical resistance [55,57,148,149,150,151,152]. Observed enhancement in different types of properties (thermal endurance, electrical conductivity, barrier properties, and chemical resistance) makes these materials prime candidates for packaging, membranes, automotive applications, and coating. The next interesting application could occur in the pharmaceutical industry. In the case of polymer-clay nanocomposites, particularly thermoplastic clay nanocomposites, the properties are determined by their morphologies, that is, clay layer aspect ratio, surface energy, interfacial adhesion, and dispersion in the polymer.
Some studies have focused on the degradation of polymer/clay nanocomposites were proceeded. They are connected not only with the influence of different additives on the behavior of material after the ending of a lifetime, but they deal also with the possibilities of extending the material lifetime. The influence of hydrolysis-inhibiting additives on the degradation and biodegradation of PLA nanocomposites was duplicated by Stloukal et al. [153]. As the inhibition additives carbodiimide-based ones were used, which can avoid hydrolytic degradation during processing. Aromatic carbodiimide effectively influenced the PLA stability during thermal degradation and a positive effect was also noted for nanocomposites. Surprising findings from the obtained data indicated that the nanocomposites containing carbodiimide appeared to be stabilized during melt processing. Next, the tested additive significantly retarded biodegradation.
On the other hand, a few disadvantages associated with nanoparticle incorporation into the polymer were observed. The nanocomposites usually exhibit lower toughness, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance, compared to the pristine polymer. Newly published studies register improvement of abrasion resistance in the presence of a silane coupling agent [154] or a combination of organically modified MMT with carbon black [155,156]. The next disadvantage is the higher viscosity of the melt and usually non-uniform distribution [157].

3. Ceramic Materials

3.1. Ceramics Based on Clays

Generally, ceramic materials can be classified into two large groups according to their properties and applications: traditional (based on clay and silica) and technical or advanced (based on carbides, nitrides, borides, pure oxides, and many others) ceramics Figure 9 [8,31,158,159]. Ceramics based on clays include the materials for which the presence of a predominant amount of clay raw materials is decisive, especially for their shaping and sintering. Silicate ceramic is one of the oldest used ceramic materials. The main components are natural raw materials (e.g., clays, talc, kaolinite) in their crude or modified state [160]. Silicate ceramic can be modified by synthetic oxides which ensure the improvement of final properties. Silicate ceramics are possible to divide into several groups according to their chemical composition. Ceramics based on aluminosilicates (representation of individual oxides in system Al2O3-SiO2), ceramics based on magnesium silicates (MgO-Al2O3-SiO2), and ceramics with low thermal expansion (Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2) [161].

Silicate Ceramics

The ternary system of MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, shown in Figure 10, includes steatite (MgSiO3), forsterite (Mg2SiO4), and cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18) ceramics.
Table 2 shows the overview of clay minerals used in pre-ceramic mixtures and types of silicate ceramics. These types of ceramics can be synthesized from clay minerals kaolinite and talc. The main constituents of talc are SiO2 and MgO and therefore talc represents a very convenient material for the synthesis of steatite and forsterite ceramics. Excellent electrical properties, high mechanical resistance, low dielectric loss, and high-temperature resistance allow for the use of steatite ceramic in electronics and electrical engineering. Steatite is also an attractive material used in medicine for its good biocompatibility, high hardness, and resistance [163,164,165]. Steatite ceramic is possible to synthesize from natural raw material containing magnesium silicate (talc) together with auxiliary fluxes (feldspar or barium carbonate) and the addition of clays [163,166,167]. Sintering at around 1400 °C, the crystalline phase of enstatite (approximately 70%) originating from mineral talc and a vitreous phase (approximately 30%) from flux are transformed into steatite ceramic [164,168]. Clay in the pre-ceramic mixture facilitates the molding and processing of the ceramic mass [163]. During the calcination of talc, the formation of a vitreous phase occurs as a side effect that changes the dielectric properties of the final ceramic [164]. The type of used flux affects the dielectric properties of ceramic [167]. Enstatite is a low-temperature modification of MgSiO3 transformed into protoenstatite (PE) during heating and clinoenstatite during cooling of PE [169]. Purified, milled, or calcined talc, after heat treatment, changes to proto-enstatite (high-temperature form) [170]. Terzić et al. (2014) [164] tried to activate talc using mechanical grinding. The authors found that grinding had a positive influence on the decreased sintering temperature of talc for steatite ceramics. Goeuriot et al. (1998) [171] dealt with enstatite ceramics prepared from talc for biomedical applications (mainly dental or bone restorations). The pre-ceramic mixtures composed of talc and kaolin waste were studied by Araujo et al. (2022) [163] to prepare steatite ceramics with improved dielectric properties. Dolomite together with talc and clay stabilized with polyacrylic acid led to the synthesis of cordierite ceramic [172].
Forsterite is the main crystalline phase of forsterite ceramics generated during the firing of materials with a high content of talc [173]. Forsterite ceramic has found applications in many fields of electronics, communications, ceramic-metal seals, and refractories because of its low electrical conductivity, high melting temperature, good chemical stability, excellent insulation properties, and bioceramics [174,175,176]. The traditionally used synthesis method for forsterite ceramic consists of firing powders of talc together with magnesium oxide [174,175,177,178,179] and/or magnesium carbonate [178,179,180,181,182]. It is important to keep the MgO/SiO2 at the molar ratio of 2:1 corresponding to the theoretical value of pure forsterite. During the synthesis of forsterite is very difficult to eliminate the undesirable secondary phases such as enstatite and periclase. For the formation of pure single-phase forsterite ceramic, several hours of milling followed by their sintering at high temperatures (1200–1600 °C) is used [174,175,178,180,181]. Mustafa et al. (2002) [182] improved the sintering and mechanical properties of forsterite through the addition of Al2O3. After the addition of different amounts of Al2O3 to the synthesized forsterite, the spinel-forsterite mixture was created. On the other hand, the Al2O3 addition higher than 15% led to the formation of enstatite in final ceramics. Sadeghzade et al. (2015) obtained pure forsterite-diopside nanocomposite powder (from talc, MgCO3, and CaCO3), applicable in tissue engineering applications, by mechanical alloying and subsequent sintering [183].
Another type of silicate ceramics is cordierite ceramics. The main crystalline phase of this ceramic is cordierite. Cordierite is a significant material in many industrial applications mainly due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion, low dielectric constant, excellent thermal shock resistance, high refractoriness, good mechanical properties, and chemical resistance. These properties result in its use in high-temperature applications, refractory material, packing material, as an electrical insulator, filters, and exhaust catalyst support [158,184,185,186]. Cordierite ceramics can be prepared from synthetic materials containing individual oxides MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2, hydroxides of their salts but also from natural materials such as talc, kaolin, gibbsite dolomite, spinel, mullite, forsterite, various clays, and from their mixture at 1340–1450 °C [158,185,186].
The basic pre-ceramic mixtures to produce cordierite consist of talc, kaolinite, and gibbsite [187,188,189] and/or talc, kaolinite, and alumina [184,190,191,192]. The mixture of submicron particles of kaolinite and Mg(OH)2 was used by Kobayashi et al. (2000) in the preparation of dense cordierite ceramics [193]. These ceramics have the potential to be substrate materials for circuit boards and as thermal shock resistance ceramics. Another mixture of ball clays, talc, alumina, and siliceous sand enabled the creation of cordierite ceramic with controlled microstructures [194]. Almeida et al. (2018) [195] obtained the cordierite ceramics via solid-state sintering method from talc, kaolin waste, and MgO. Pavlikov et al. (2011) [190] replaced kaolin in some cordierite pre-ceramic mixtures with another clay mineral pyrophyllite. Goren et al. (2006) successfully synthesized the cordierite ceramics without any other secondary phases by sintering at higher temperatures (1350 and 1400 °C) mixture of talc, diatomite, and alumina [185]. Goren et al. (2006) chose as the starting materials besides talc fly ash, fused silica, and alumina for the preparation of cordierite ceramics [196]. Kumar et al. (2000) synthesized cordierite ceramic by sintering talc, fly ash, and calcined alumina. The authors showed that fly ash can be used as a substitute for clay in cordierite ceramic for refractory applications [197]. Microcellular cordierite ceramic with improved 14 hermos/mechanical properties was obtained from a mixture of different materials containing talc, polysiloxane, alumina (as filler), and expandable microspheres (thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) shell). Three steps were chosen for the ceramics preparation, namely foaming of pre-ceramic mixtures, cross-linking, and subsequent sintering [198]. The combination of commercially available and commonly used clay minerals talc and kaolinite and untraditionally vermiculite as precursor for synthesis of cordierite ceramics utilized studies by Valášková et al. (2009), Valášková and Simha Martynková (2010), Valášková et al. (2014) [199], and Valášková et al. (2018) [200]. Acimovic et al. (2003) [201] produced cordierite ceramics based on kaolin, quartz, and sepiolite and talc, kaolin, silica, and feldspar. Sepiolite represents hydrated magnesium silicate, and it can replace talc in pre-ceramic mixtures. Microstructure, porosity, bulk density, and thermal conductivity were characterized by Li et al. (2015) [202] for cordierite foam ceramics prepared from kaolin, attapulgite, and MgO. In the study of Gökce et al. (2011), steatite (mixture of calcined talc and Al2O3 and BaCO3) and cordierite (calcined talc and kaolinite and Al2O3) ceramics were synthesized separately. After the sintering of both types of ceramics, the cordierite powder was added to the steatite ceramic. Cordierite acted as reinforcement material in the steatite matrix. The authors evaluated the influence of cordierite content and sintering temperature on the properties of final cordierite/steatite ceramics.
The next possibility, how to obtain cordierite ceramic, is a modification of clay minerals in various ways e.g., with organic compounds or cations or inorganic cations. The influence of different organic modifying agents (octadecylamine, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and hexadecylpyridinium) and two sources of vermiculite (Brazil and South Africa) was investigated on the mineral phase composition and porosity of cordierite/steatite ceramics [200]. The use of organically modified vermiculite in the pre-ceramic clay mixtures as a pore-forming additive led to the crystallization of indialite (high-temperature phase of cordierite) at the expense of other mineral phases and the creation of porous cordierite/steatite ceramics [200,201,202,203]. Vermiculite matrix with anchored CeO2 nanoparticles was used in pre-ceramic mixtures (with talc and kaolinite) for preparation of photocatalyst CeO2/cordierite/steatite ceramics [204,205]. Valášková et al. (2015, 2019) and Valášková et al. (2013) [204,205,206] investigated the characterization of zircon-cordierite ceramics created from zirconium-vermiculite precursor in pre-ceramic clay mixtures. Zircon-cordierites exposed a lower porosity and higher hardness in comparison to basic cordierites. Another cordierite-mullite composite ceramic is a potentially suitable material for solar thermal storage. Authors prepared this type of ceramic composite from raw materials talc, kaolin, andalusite, potassium feldspar, albite, and Al2O3 [207].
Table 2. The overview of pre-ceramic clay mixtures and types of silicate ceramics.
Table 2. The overview of pre-ceramic clay mixtures and types of silicate ceramics.
Pre-ceramic Mixtures
Clay MineralsOtherType of CeramicsSintering Temperature (°C)ApplicationsRef.
Talc-Enstatite1275, 1350, 1375Machinable prosthesis [171]
Talc, clayBaCO3Steatite1240–1380-[167]
Talc, montmorillonite
Talc, kaolinite
Talc, montmorillonite
Talc, kaolinite,
Acid treated talc
Steatite 1300-[165]
Talc, clayBaCO3, boric acidSteatite1000–1200High temperature electrical applications[166]
Talc, kaolin-Steatite1200, 1250, 1300Material in electrical insulation[163]
Talc, clayDolomite,
polyacrylic acid
Steatite1275, 1300-[172]
TalcMgOForsterite1200, 1300, 1400, 1500Biomedical applications[177]
TalcMgCO3, NH4ClForsterite1000Bioceramics (bone tissue engineering applications)[181]
TalcMgCO3, NH4ClForsterite1000, 1200-[173]
TalcMgOForsterite1200 -[174]
TalcMgOForsterite1200–1500 -[175]
1000, 1200

1000, 1200 -[178]
Talccalcined MgCO3Forsterite1400-[182]
1200, 1300Refractory ceramics[179]
TalcMgCO3, CaCO3Forsterite/diopside1200Tissue engineering[183]
Talc, kaolin,
Talc, kaolin
Talc, kaolin, pyrophyllite
Talc, pyrophyllite
Talc, kaolin,
Talc, pyrophyllite
Mg, Al2O3
Mg, Al2O3
Talc, kaolinite
Al2O3, BaCO3
Talc, kaolin wasteMgOCordierite950, 1050, 1150, 1250, 1350Refractory and insulating materials[195]
KaoliniteMg(OH)2Cordierite1350Substrate material for circuit boards, thermal shock resistance ceramics[193]
TalcDiatomite, Al2O3Cordierite1300, 1350, 1400-[185]
TalcFly ash, fused silica, Al2O3Cordierite1200, 1300, 1350, 1375-[196]
Kaolin, attapulgiteMgOCordierite1200Thermal insulator[202]
Kaolinite, talc, vermiculite Cordierite/steatite1300-[199]
Kaolinite, talc, vermiculite, organo-vermiculite Cordierite/steatite1300-[200]
Kaolinite, talc, vermiculitesAl2O3, Al(OH)3Cordierite1300-[187]
Kaolinite, talc, vermiculiteAl2O3Cordierite1300-[191]
Kaolinite, talc, vermiculite, organo-vermiculite Cordierite/steatite1300-[203]
Talc, kaolinite, vermiculiteMgO, Al(OH)3Cordierite1300-[192]
Talc, kaolinite, ball clayAl2O3, silica sandCordierite1300Industrial manufacture of porous ceramic materials[194]
Talc, kaolinite, CeO2/vermiculite-Cordierite/CeO21300Photocatalysts[204,205]
TalcPolysiloxane, Al2O3, expandable microspheresCordierite 1300-[198]
Talc, kaoliniteAl(OH)3Cordierite1260-[189]
Kaolin, sepiolite
Kaolin, talc
SiO2, feldspar
1250, 1300, 1350Application in foundry[201]
TalcFly ash, Al2O3Cordierite1350Refractory application[197]
Talc, kaolinFeldspar, albite, andalusite, Al2O3Cordierite/mullite1340–1420Thermal storage materials[207]

4. Conclusions

The presented study focuses on one part of nanotechnology targeted to polymer science, concretely to the field of polymer/clay nanocomposites. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials show an interesting enhancement of properties compared to traditional micro-composites with a low level of nanofiller loading obviously in the range of 1%–5%. The most favorite source of nanoelements is montmorillonite (MMT), a layered aluminosilicate whose morphology is created by stacks of individual platelets with 1 nm thickness. Although clay nanocomposites were discovered in the 1990s, interest from the scientific community remains high. Some of the applications have already been commercialized. Approximately 80% of the polymer/clay nanocomposites are destined for the automotive (General Motors, Chevrolet, Nissan), aeronautical, and packaging industries [208]. The key drivers for the use of polymer/clay nanocomposites in the automotive industry are reduction in vehicle’s weight, improved engine efficiency (fuel saving), reduction in CO2 emissions, and superior performance (greater safety, increased comfort, and better drivability) [208]. The next perspective is presented by packaging applications. The tested materials based on PLA showed common improvement in the range of 30% [113]. Other commercial applications include cables, furniture, and domestic appliances. Further, applications like in selective catalyzers, conductive polymers, filtration of toxic materials, drug delivery systems, and energy storage, are expected. Although nanocomposites present a series of advanced properties, their production is considered low in comparison with other materials, due to the production costs.
The second part focused on ceramic materials prepared from clay minerals in pre-ceramic mixtures. The kind, quantity, and combination of clay minerals in the pre-ceramic mixtures, as well as different preparation methods or their chemical modifications significantly influence or alter the resulting properties of ceramics after their sintering. Clay minerals such as talc and kaolinite represent the main natural raw materials for traditional applications mainly for creating silicate ceramics. Silicate ceramics like cordierite, steatite, and forsterite are used in many industrial applications (especially in electronics and electrical engineering) and offer cost savings mainly due to using natural raw materials in comparison to other types of ceramics. Further, silicate ceramics have a great versatility of applications including refractory, insulating, packing materials, filters, catalysts, and thick films and as glass-ceramics, forsterite, and bioceramics. Moreover, ceramic composite materials have been increasingly used in various fields including catalysts, solar thermal storage, and medical applications. Steatite, forsterite, and cordierite-based ceramics may offer new properties to industry applications.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, format, resources, writing, editing—A.K. and J.K.; visualization, investigation—A.K., J.K., D.M. and M.U. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Faculty of Technology nr. IGA/FT/2023/008 and IGA/FT/2024/008. Next, this research was funded by Jan Amos Komensky Operational Program financed by the EU and state budget of the Czech Republic, no. CZ.02.01.01/00/22_008/0004631. Also, EU under the REFRESH—project number CZ.10.03.01/00/22_003/0000048 via the Operational Programme “Just Transition” funded the project.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to some basic research involving confidentiality.


The authors would like to give thanks to Marta Valášková and also the Minerals Journal.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. History of Nanotechnology. Available online: (accessed on 28 November 2023).
  2. Ajayan, P.M.; Schadler, L.S.; Braun, P.V. Nanocomposite Science and Technology; Wiley—WCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2003; ISBN 3-527-30359-6. [Google Scholar]
  3. What Is Nanotechnology? Available online: (accessed on 19 November 2023).
  4. Nanocomposites Market, Global Indurstry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth & Forecast 2022–2031. Available online:,use%20of%20nanocomposites%20in%20biomedical%20applications%20and%20packaging (accessed on 29 November 2023).
  5. Bergaya, F.; Theng, B.K.G.; Lagaly, G. Chapter 1: General introduction: Clays, clay minerals and clay science. In Handbook of Clay Science, Developments in Clay Science; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  6. Harvey, C.C.; Lagaly, G. Chapter 10.1: Conventional Applications. In Handbook of Clay Science, Developments in Clay Science; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  7. Konta, J. Clay and man: Clay raw materialsin the service of man. Appl. Clay Sci. 1995, 10, 275–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Valášková, M. Clays, Clay minerals and cordierite ceramics—A review. Ceram. Silik. 2015, 59, 331–340. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergaya, F.; Jaber, M.; Lambert, J.-F. Chapter 1: Clays and Clay Mineral. In Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites: Science, Technology, and Applications; Galimberti, M., Ed.; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  10. Pospisil, M.; Capkova, P.; Merinska, D.; Malac, Z.; Simonik, J. Sructure analysis of montmorillonite intercalated with cetylpyridinium and cetyltrimethylammonium: Molecular simulations and XRD analysis. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2001, 236, 127–131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Murray, H.H. Overview, clay mineral applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 1991, 5, 379–395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Glebova, A.A.; Skovorodnikova, M.S.; Pavlova, I.A.; Farafontova, E.P. Research on the Ceramicc Properties of Orenburg Oblast Clay. Glass Ceram. 2023, 79, 11–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Yang, X.; Yang, W.; Hu, J. Preparation of Low-Dielectric-Constant Kaolin Clay Ceramics by Chemical Cleaning Method. Front. Mater. 2021, 8, 692759. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Petronela, N. The Influence of Drying Conditions of Clay-Based Polymer Coatings on Coated Paper Properties. Coatings 2021, 11, 12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Devisetti, S.; Lempsink, G.; Malla, P.B. Use of kaolin clay in aqueous barrier coating applications. Tappi J. 2023, 22, 685–697. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Granetto, M.; Serpella, L.; Fogliatto, S.; Re, L.; Bianco, C.; Vidotto, F.; Tosco, T. Natural clay and biopolymer-based nanopesticides to control the environ-mental spread of a soluble herbicide. Sci. Total Environ. 2022, 806 Pt 3, 151199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Mahmoodi, A.; Dadras, A.; Jiryaei, Z.; Khorasani, M.; Shi, X.M. A Yellow Lead-Free Pavement Marking Paint Based on Hybrid Dye-Clay Nanopigment: Morphological, Thermome-chemical, and Photophysical Properties. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2021, 9, 16466–16473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Vakhitova, L.; Kalafat, K.; Vakhitov, R.; Drizhd, V.; Taran, N.; Bessarabov, V. Nano-clays as rheology modifiers in intumescent coatings for steel building structures. Chem. Eng. J. Adv. 2023, 16, 100544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Choi, G.; Piao, H.Y.; Eom, S.; Choy, J.H. Vectorized Clay Nanoparticles in Therapy and Diagnosis. Clay Clays Miner. 2019, 67, 25–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Nomicisio, C.; Ruggeri, M.; Bianchi, E.; Vigani, B.; Valentino, C.; Aguzzi, C.; Viseras, C.; Rossi, S.; Sandri, G. Natural and Synthetic Clay Minerals in the Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Fields. Pharmaceutics 2023, 15, 1368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Torbert, H.A.; Harmel, R.D.; Potter, K.N.; Dozier, M. Evaluation of some phosphorus index criteria in cultivated agriculture in clay soils. J. Soil Water Conserv. 2005, 60, 21–29. [Google Scholar]
  22. Kubo, K.; Hirayama, T.; Fujimura, S.; Eguchi, T.; Nihei, N.; Hamamoto, S.; Takeuchi, M.; Saito, T.; Ota, T.; Shinano, T. Potassium behavior and clay mineral composition in the soil with low effectiveness of potassium application. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2018, 64, 265–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Degrave-Lemeurs, M.; Glé, P.; de Menibus, A.H. Acoustical properties of hemp concretes for buildings thermal insulation: Application to clay and lime binders. Constr. Build. Mater. 2018, 160, 462–474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Zhou, S.Q.; Niu, Y.Q.; Liu, J.H.; Chen, X.X.; Li, C.S.; Gates, W.P.; Zhou, C.H. Functional Montmorillonite/Polymer Coatings. Clays Clay Miner. 2022, 70, 209–232. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Moradihamedani, P. Recent development in polymer/montmorillonite clay mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: A short review. Polym. Bull. 2023, 80, 4663–4687. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Zhu, Y.; Iroh, J.O.; Rajagopolan, R.; Aykanat, A.; Vaia, R. Optimizing the Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Conducting Polymer-Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites. Energies 2022, 15, 1291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Viseras, C.; Sánchez-Espejo, R.; Palumbo, R.; Liccardi, N.; García-Villén, F.; Borrego-Sánchez, A.; Massaro, M.; Riela, S.; López-Galindo, A. Clays in Cosmetics and Personal-Care Products. Clays Clay Miner. 2022, 69, 561–575. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Suzuki, A.; Shikinaka, K.; Ishii, R.; Yoshida, H.; Ebina, T.; Ishida, T.; Nge, T.T.; Yamada, T. Heat-resistant insulation film containing clay and wood components. Appl. Clay Sci. 2019, 180, 105189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Singh, N.B. Clays and Clay Minerals in the Construction Industry. Minerals 2022, 12, 301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Das, P.; Manna, S.; Behera, A.K.; Shee, M.; Basak, P.; Sharma, A.K. Current synthesis and characterization techniques for clay-based polymer nano-composites and its biomedical applications: A review. Environ. Res. 2022, 212, 113534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Barry Carter, C.; Grant Norton, M. Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kagonbé, B.P.; Tsozué, D.; Nzeukou, A.N.; Ngos III, S. Mineralogical, physico-chemical and ceramic properties of clay materials from Sekandé and Gashiga (North, Cameroon) and their suitability in earthenware production. Heliyon 2021, 7, e07608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Global Nanoceramics Market—Industry Trends and Forecast to 2030. Available online: (accessed on 29 November 2023).
  34. Krishnamoorti, R.; Vaia, A.R. Polymer Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization, and Modeling; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, USA, 2002; ISBN 0-8412-3768-9. [Google Scholar]
  35. Lai, Y.-H.; Chiu, C.-W.; Chen, J.-G.; Wang, C.-C.; Ho, K.-C. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2009, 93, 1860–1864. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Pethrick Richard, A. Polymer Science and Technology for Scientists and Engineers; Whittles Publishing: Caithnes, UK, 2010; p. 354. ISBN 978-1904445-40-1. [Google Scholar]
  37. Bee, S.-L.; Abdullah, M.A.A.; Lee Bee, S.-T.; Sin, T.; Rahmat, A.R. Polymer nanocomposites based on silylated-montmorillonite: A review. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2018, 85, 57–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Sapalidis, A.A.; Katsaros, F.K.; Kanellopoulos, N.K. PVA/montmorillonite nanocomposites: Development and properties. In Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods; Cappoletti, J., Ed.; InTech: Rijeka, Croatia, 2011; pp. 29–50. [Google Scholar]
  39. Zulfiqar, S.; Kausar, A.; Rizwan, M.; Sarwar, M.I. Probing the role of surface treated montmorillonite on the properties of semiaromatic polyamide/clay nanocomposites. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2008, 255, 2080–2086. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Bertuoli, P.T.; Piazza, D.; Scienza, L.C.; Zattera, A.J. Preparation and characterization of montmorillonite modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Appl. Clay Sci. 2014, 87, 46–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Kádár, F.; Százdi, L.; Fekete, E.; Pukánszky, B. Surface characteristics of layered silicates: Influence on the properties of clay/polymer nanocomposites. Langmuir 2006, 22, 7848–7854. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Fudala, A.; Palinko, I.; Kiricsi, I. Preparation and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials using the amphoteric property of amino acids: Amino acid intercalated layered double hydroxide and montmorillonite. Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 4653–4658. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Zhu, J.; Zhanga, P.; Qinga, Y.; Wena, K.; Sua, X.; Ma, L.; Jingming Wei, J.; Liu, H.; He, H.; Xi, Y. Novel intercalation mechanism of zwitterionic surfactant modified montmorillonites. Appl. Clay Sci. 2017, 141, 265–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Lagaly, G. Interaction of Alkylamines with different types of layered compounds. Solid State Ion. 1986, 22, 43–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Vaia, R.A.; Teukolsky, R.K.; Giannelis, E.P. Interlayer Structure and Molecular Environment of Alkylammonium Layered Silicates. Chem. Mater. 1994, 6, 1017–1022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Rappé, A.K.; Casewit, C.J.; Colwell, K.S.; Goddard, W.A.; Skiff, W.M. UFF, a Full Periodic-Table Force-field for Molecular Mechanics and Molecular-Dynamics simulations. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 10024–10035. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Berendsen, H.J.C.; Postma, J.P.M.; van Gunsteren, W.F.; DiNola, A.; Haak, J.R. Molecular-Dynamics with Coupling to an External Bath. J. Chem. Phys. 1984, 81, 3684–3690. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Kalendova, A.; Pospisil, M.; Kovarova, L.; Merinska, D.; Valaskova, M.; Vlkova, H.; Simonik, J.; Capkova, P. Influence of chain length on inter-calation process of polyvinylchloride/clay nanocomposites based on alkyl-amine. Plast. Rubber Compos. 2004, 33, 279–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Cavalcanti, J.V.F.L.; Abreu, C.; Carvalho, M.N.; Motta, M. Removal of Effluent from Petrochemical Wastewater by Adsorption Using Organoclay. In Petrochemicals; IntechOpen: London, United Kingdom, 2012; pp. 277–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Meier, L.P.; Nuesch, R. The Lower Cation Exchange Capacity Limit of Montmorillonite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1999, 217, 77–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Rappé, A.K.; Goddard, W.A. Charge Equilibration for Molecular-Dynamics Simulations. J. Phys. Chem. 1991, 95, 3358–3363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Karasawa, A.; Goddard, W.A. Acceleration of convergence for Lattice Sums. J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 7320–7327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Dabbaghianamiria, D.M.; Beall, G.W. Self-assembling nanostructured intercalates via ion–dipole bonding. Dalton Trans. 2018, 47, 3178–3184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Merinska, D.; Chmielova, M.; Kalendova, A.; Weiss, Z.; Capkova, P.; Simonik, J. Montmorillonite co-intercalated with octadecylamine and stearic acid by low temperature melting and its influence on PP nanocomposites. Int. Polym. Process. 2003, 18, 133–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Pospisil, M.; Kalendova, A.; Capkova, P.; Simonik, J.; Valaskova, M. Structure analysis of intercalated layer silicates: Combination of molecular simulations and experiment. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2004, 277, 154–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Bergaya, F.; Jaber, M.; Lambert, J.F. Organophilic clay minerals. In Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites: Science, Technology, and Applications; Galimberti, M., Ed.; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 45–86. [Google Scholar]
  57. Shen, W.; He, H.; Zhu, J.; Yuan, P.; Frost, R.L. Grafting of montmorillonite with different functional silanes via two different reaction systems. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 313, 268–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Theng, B.K.G. Formation and Properties of Clay-Polymer Complexes, 2nd ed.; Elsevier Ltd.: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012; pp. 1–511. ISBN 9780444533548. [Google Scholar]
  59. Albdiry, M.T.; Yousif, B.F.; Ku, H.; Lau, K.T. A critical review on the manufacturing processes in relation to the properties of nanoclay/polymer composites. J. Compos. Mater. 2013, 47, 1093–1115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Buruga, K.; Song, H.; Shang, J.; Bolan, N.; Kim, K.-H. A review on functional polymer-clay based nanocomposite membranes for treatment of water. J. Hazard. Mater. 2019, 379, 120584. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Zhu, T.T.; Zhou, C.H.; Kabwe, F.B.; Wu, Q.Q.; Li, C.S.; Zhang, J.R. Exfoliation of montmorillonite and related properties of clay/polymer nanocomposites. Appl. Clay Sci. 2019, 169, 48–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Young, R.J.; Kinloch, I.A.; Gong, L.; Novoselov, K.S. The mechanics of graphene nanocomposites: A review. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2012, 72, 1459–1476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Du, J.H.; Cheng, H.M. The fabrication, properties, and uses of graphene/polymer composites. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2012, 213, 1060–1077. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Li, X.Q.; Wang, C.Y.; Cao, Y.; Wang, G.X. Functional MXene materials: Progress of their applications. Chem. Asian J. 2018, 13, 2742–2757. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Tu, S.B.; Jiang, Q.; Zhang, X.X.; Alshareef, H.N. Large dielectric constant enhancement in MXene percolative polymer composites. ACS Nano 2018, 12, 3369–3377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Calvert, P. Nanotube composites—A recipe for strength. Nature 1999, 399, 210–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Liu, M.X.; Jia, Z.X.; Jia, D.M.; Zhou, C.R. Recent advance in research on halloysite nanotubes-polymer nanocomposite. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2014, 39, 1498–1525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Papoulis, D. Halloysite based nanocomposites and photocatalysis: A Review. Appl. Clay Sci. 2019, 168, 164–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Albdiry, M.T.; Yousif, B.F. Toughening of brittle polyester with functionalized halloysite nanocomposites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2019, 160, 94–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Gao, D.; Chang, R.; Lyu, B.; Ma, J. Growth from spherical to rod-like SiO2: Impact on microstructure and performance of nanocomposite. J. Alloys Compd. 2019, 810, 151814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Mark, J.E. Ceramic-reinforced polymers and polymer-modified ceramics. Polym. Eng. Sci. 1996, 36, 2905–2920. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Herron, N.; Thorn, D.L. Nanoparticles: Uses and relationships to molecular cluster compounds. Adv. Mater. 1998, 10, 1173–1184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Huang, P.; Shi, H.Q.; Fu, S.Y.; Xiao, H.M.; Hu, N.; Li, Y.Q. Greatly decreased redshift and largely enhanced refractive index of mono-dispersed ZnO-QD/silicone nanocomposites. J. Mater. Chem. 2016, 4, 8663–8669. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Fu, S.; Sun, Z.; Huang, P.; Li, Y.; Hu, N. Some basic aspects of polymer nanocomposites: A critical review. Nano Mater. Sci. 2019, 1, 2–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Information Resources Management Association. Materials Science and Engineering—Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Application; IGI Global: Hershey, PA, USA, 2017; Volume 1, ISBN 9781522517986. [Google Scholar]
  76. Unalan, I.U.; Cerri, G.; Marcuzzo, E.; Cozzolino, C.A.; Farris, S. Nanocomposite films and coatings using inorganic nanobuilding blocks (NBB): Current applications and future opportunities in the food packaging sector. RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 29393–29428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Okamota, M. Recent Advances in Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites: An Overview from Science to Technology. Mater. Sci. Technol. 2006, 22, 756–779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Dadfar, S.M.R.; Ramazani, S.A.A.; Dadfar, S.M.A. Investigation of Oxygen Barrier Properties of Organoclay/HDPE/EVA Nanocomposite Films Prepared Using a Two-Step Solution Method. Polym. Compos. 2009, 30, 812–819. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Yu, Y.-Y.; Chiu, C.-T.; Chueh, C.-C. Solution-Processable, Transparent Polyimide for High-Performance High-k Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Dielectric Applications in Transistors. Asian J. Org. Chem. 2018, 7, 2263–3370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Vaia, R.A.; Ishii, H.; Giannelis, E.P. Synthesis and Properties of 2-Dimensional Nanostructures by Direct Intercalation of Polymer Melts in Layered Silicates. Chem. Mater. 1993, 5, 1694–1696. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Tiwari, S.K.; Sarang Pande, S.; Bobade, S.M.; Kumar, S. A Targeted Functional Value Based Nanoclay/PA12 Composite, Material Development for Selective Laser Sintering Process. Procedia Manuf. 2017, 21, 630–637. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Hasani, Z.; Youssefi, M.; Borhani, S.; Mallakpour, S. Structure and properties of nylon-6/amino acid modified nanoclay composite fibers. J. Text. Inst. 2019, 110, 1336–1342. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Liu, X.C.; Liu, Y.J.; Shi, P.; Lai, D.W.; Yi, Z.W.; Mao, L.; Yang, J.; Zheng, W. Thermal, Rheological and Mechanical Properties of PA6-66 Nanocomposites Co-Incorporated with Montmorillonite and Nanosilica. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Lett. 2018, 10, 177–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Lai, D.; You, Y.; Ou, B. Preparation, microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of in situ polymerized polyimide/organically modified sericite mica composites. Polym. Compos. 2016, 37, 2243–2251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Kwon, K.; Chang, J.-H. Comparison of the properties of polyimide nanocomposites containing three different nanofillers: Organoclay, functionalized graphene, and organoclay/functionalized graphene complex. J. Compos. Mater. 2015, 49, 3031–3044. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Dabrowski, F.; Bourbigot, S.; Delobel, R.; Le Bras, M. Kinetic modelling of the thermal degradation of polyamide-6 nanocomposite. Eur. Polym. J. 2000, 36, 273–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Utracki, L.A.; Lyngaae-Jorgensen, J. Dynamic melt flow of nanocomposites based on poly-epsilon-caprolactam. Rheol. Acta 2002, 41, 394–407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Bourbigot, S.; Devaux, E.; Flambard, X. Flammability of polyamide-6/clay hybrid nanocomposite textiles. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2002, 75, 397–402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Utracki, L.A. Equations of State for Polyamide-6 and Its Nanocomposites. II. Effects of Clay. J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 2009, 47, 966–980. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Utracki, L.A. Equations of State for Polyamide-6 and Its Nanocomposites. 1. Fundamentals and the Matrix. J. Polym. Sci. Part B-Polym. Phys. 2009, 47, 299–313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. dos Santos Filho, E.A.; de Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Ferreira, R.D.B.; Oliveira, S.S.L.; Medeiros, V.D. Membranes of polyamide 6/clay/salt for water/oil separation. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 105313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Kojima, Y.; Usuki, A.; Kawasumi, M.; Okada, A.; Kurauchi, T.; Kamigaito, O. Synthesis of Nylon-6-Clay Hybrid by Montmorillonite Intercalated with Epsilon-Caprolactam. J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 1993, 31, 983–986. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Kojima, Y.; Usuki, A.; Kawasumi, M.; Okada, A.; Fukushima, Y.; Kurauchi, T.; Kamigaito, O. Mechanical-Properties of Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid. J. Mater. Res. 1993, 8, 1185–1189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Kojima, Y.; Usuki, A.; Kawasumi, M.; Okada, A.; Kurauchi, T.; Kamigaito, O. One-Pot Synthesis of Nylon-6 Clay Hybrid. J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 1993, 31, 1755–1758. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Usuki, A.; Kojima, Y.; Kawasumi, M.; Okada, A.; Fukushima, Y.; Kurauchi, T.; Kamigaito, O. Synthesis of Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid. J. Mater. Res. 1993, 8, 1179–1184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Kojima, Y.; Usuki, A.; Kawasumi, M.; Okada, A.; Kurauchi, T.; Kamigaito, O.; Kaji, K. Fine-Structure of Nylon-6-Clay Hybrid. J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 1994, 32, 625–630. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Azuma, H.; Takeichi, A.; Noda, S. Structure-Analysis of Nylon6-Clay Hybrid by Spectral Reflectance of Laser-Plasma Soft X Rays. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1–Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 1993, 32, 5558–5563. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Fukusima, Y. Development of clay minerals/organic polymer nano-composit materials. Nippon. Kagaku Kaishi 2000, 9, 605–611. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Wu, T.M.; Liao, C.S. Crystalline transitions in nylon/clay nanocomposites. In Proceedings of the 58th Annual Technical Conference of the Society-of-Plastics-Engineers ANTEC 2000—Proceedings, Orlando, FL, USA, 2–4 April 2000; Volume I–III, pp. 1514–1517. [Google Scholar]
  100. Devaux, E.; Bourbigot, S.; El Achari, A. Crystallization behavior of PA-6 clay nanocomposite hybrid. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2002, 86, 2416–2423. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Tanaka, G.; Goettler, L.A. Predicting the binding energy for nylon 6,6/clay nanocomposites by molecular modeling. Polymer 2002, 43, 541–553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Silva, T.F.; Soares, B.G.; Ferreira, S.C.; Livi, S. Silylated montmorillonite as nanofillers for plasticized PVC nanocomposites: Effect of the plasticizer. Appl. Clay Sci. 2014, 99, 93–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Thabet, A.; Ebnalwaled, A.A. Improvement of surface energy properties of PVC nanocomposites for enhancing electrical applications. Measurement 2017, 110, 78–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Trlica, J.; Kalendova, A.; Malac, Z.; Simonik, J.; Pospisil, L. PVC/Clay Nanocomposites. In Proceedings of the 59th Annual Technical Conference ANTEC 2001—Proceeding, Dallas, TX, USA, 6–10 May 2001; pp. 2162–2165. [Google Scholar]
  105. Kalendova, A.; Kovarova, L.; Malac, J.; Vaculik, J.; Malac, Z.; Simonik, J.; Hrncirik, J. Modified Clay in Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Matrix. In Proceedings of the 60th Annual Technical Conference ANTEC 2002—Proceeding, San Francisco, CA, USA, 5–9 May 2002; pp. 2250–2254. [Google Scholar]
  106. Pospíšil, M.; Čapková, P.; Weiss, Z.; Maláč, Z.; Šimoník, J. Intercalation of Octadecylamine into Montmorillonite: Molecular Simulations and XRD Analysis. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2002, 245, 126–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Lagaly, G.; Weiss, A. Arrangement and orientation of tensides on silicate surfaces II. Paraffin-like structure in alkylammonium layer silicate with a high layer charge (mica). Kolloid Z. Z. Fur Polym. 1970, 237, 364–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Lagaly, G.; Weiss, A. Arrangement and orientation of cationic tensides on silicate surfaces IV. Arrangement of alkylammonium ions in low-charged silicates of films. Kolloid Z. Z. Fur Polym. 1971, 243, 48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Lagaly, G.; Weiss, A. Layer intercalation coumpouns as models for structure and structural conversions of monomolecular and bimolecular films of long-chain compounds II. Phase changes in alkylammonium layer silicate-alkanol complexes. Kolloid Z. Z. Fur Polym. 1971, 248, 979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Arvanitoyannis, I.; Nikolaou, E.; Yamamoto, N. Novel biodegradable copolyamides based on adipic acid, bis (p-aminocyclohexyl) methane and several alpha-amino-acids—Synthesis, characterization and study od their degradability for food packaging applications. Polymer 1994, 35, 4678–4689. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Arjmandi, R.; Hassan, A.; Haafiz, M.K.M.; Zakaria, Z.; Islam, M.S. Effect of hydrolysed cellulose nanowhiskers on properties of montmorillonite/polylactic acid nanocomposites. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016, 82, 998–1010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Lima, E.M.B.; Lima, A.M.; Silva, M.; Minguita, A.P.S.; Paula, A.; dos Santos, N.R.R.; Pereira, I.C.S.; Neves, T.T.M.; Goncalves, L.F.D.; Moreira, A.P.D.; et al. Poly(lactic acid) biocomposites with mango waste and organo-montmorillonite for packaging. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Kalendova, A.; Smotek, J.; Stloukal, P.; Kracalik, K.M.; Slouf, M.; Laske, S. Transport Properties of PLA/Clay Nanocomposites. Polym. Eng. Sci. 2019, 59, 2498–2501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Fayyazbakhsh, A.; Koutny, M.; Kalendova, A.; Sasinkova, D.; Julinova, M.; Kadleckova, M. Selected Simple Natural Antimicrobial Terpenoids as Additives to Control Biodegradation of Polyhydroxy Butyrate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 14079. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Julinova, M.; Šasinkova, D.; Minarik, A.; Kaszonyiova, M.; Kalendova, A.; Kadleckova, M.; Fayyazbakhsh, A.; Koutny, M. Comprehensive Biodegradation Analysis of Chemically Modified Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Materials with Different Crystal Structures. Biomacromolecules 2023, 24, 4939–4957. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Therias, S.; Murariu, M.; Dubois, P. Bionanocomposites based on PLA and halloysite nanotubes: From key properties to photooxidative degradation. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2017, 145, 60–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Ghorpade, V.M.; Gennadios, A.; Hanna, M.A. Laboratory composting of extruded poly(lactic acid) sheets. Bioresour. Technol. 2001, 76, 57–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  118. Harris, A.M.; Lee, E.C. Heat and humidity performance of injection molded PLA for durable applications. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2010, 115, 1380–1389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  119. Prakalathan, K.; Mohanty, S.; Nayak, S.K. Polylactide/modified layered silicates nanocomposites: A critical analysis of morphological, mechanical and thermalproperties. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2012, 31, 1300–1310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Darie, R.N.; Paslaru, E.; Sdrobis, A.; Pricope, G.M.; Hitruc, G.E.; Poiatǎ, A.; Baklavaridis, A.; Vasile, C. Effect of nanoclay hydrophilicity on the poly(lactic acid)/clay nanocomposites properties. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2014, 53, 7877–7890. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  121. Murariu, M.; Dubois, P. PLA composites: From production to properties. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2016, 107, 17–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. Connolly, M.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D.M.; Ortuno, N.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Stone, V.; Fernandes, T.F.; Johnston, H.J. Novel polylactic acid (PLA)-organoclay nanocomposite bio-packaging for the cosmetic industry; migration studies and in vitro assessment of the dermal toxicity of migration extracts. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2019, 168, 108938. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Moldovan, A.; Cuc, S.; Prodan, D.; Rusu, M.; Popa, D.; Taut, A.C.; Petean, I.; Bombos, D.D.R.; Nemes, O. Development and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Based Nanocomposites Used for Food Packaging. Polymers 2023, 15, 2855. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Choudalakis, G.; Gotsis, A. Permeability of polymer/clay nanocomposites: A review. Eur. Polym. J. 2009, 45, 967–984. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Lu, C.; Mai, Y.W. Influence of aspect ratio on barrier properties of polymer-clay nanocomposites. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 088303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Lan, T.; Kaviratna, P.D.; Pinnavaia, T.J. Mechanism of clay tactorid exfoliation in epoxy-clay nanocomposites. Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2144–2150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  127. Chan, Y.-N.; Juang, T.-Y.; Liao, Y.-L.; Dai, S.A.; Lin, J.-J. Preparation of clay/epoxy nanocomposites by layered-double-hydroxide initiated self-polymerization. Polymer 2008, 49, 4796–4801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Lan, T.; Kaviratna, P.D.; Pinnavaia, T.J. Epoxy self-polymerization in smectite clays. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1996, 57, 1005–1010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  129. Wang, Z.; Lan, T.; Pinnavaia, T.J. Hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites formed from an epoxy polymer and a layered silicic acid (magadiite). Chem. Mater. 1996, 8, 2200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  130. Wang, Z.; Pinnavaia, T.J. Nanolayer reinforcement of elastomeric polyurethane. Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 3769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Fernández, M.; Landa, M.; Muñoz, M.E.; Santamaría, A. Electrical conductivity of PUR/MWCNT nanocomposites in the molten state, during crystallization and in the solid state. Eur. Polym. J. 2011, 47, 2078–2086. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  132. Cai, D.Y.; Song, M. High mechanical performance polyurea/organoclay nanocomposites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2014, 103, 44–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Peng, S.; Iroh, J.O. Dependence of the Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Structure of Polyurethane-Clay Nanocomposites on the Weight Fraction of Clay. J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6, 173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  134. Mohammadi, R.S.; Tabatabaei, S.H.; Ajji, A. Peelable clay/PE nanocomposite seals with ultra-wide peelable heat seal temperature window. Appl. Clay Sci. 2018, 158, 132–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Santamaría, P.; Eguiazabal, J.I. Structure and mechanical properties of blown films of ionomer-compatibilized LDPE nanocomposites. Polym. Test. 2012, 31, 367–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  136. Szustakiewicz, K.; Kiersnowski, A.; Gazińska, M.; Bujnowicz, K.; Pigłowski, J. Flammability, structure and mechanical properties of PP/OMMT nanocomposites. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2011, 96, 291–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  137. de Mesquita, P.; Jordania, P.; Alves; Soares, T.; Renata, B. Development and characterization of green polyethylene/clay/antimicrobial additive nanocomposites. Polim. Cienc. E Tecnol. 2023, 32, e2022022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Zare, Y.; Rhee, K.Y. Estimation of Tensile Modulus for Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Clay Shape Memory Nanocomposites. Phys. Mesomech. 2021, 24, 211–218. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Mohan, C.; Kumari, N.; Dixit, S. Effect of various types of clay minerals on mechanical and thermal properties of PMMA polymer composite films. MRS Adv. 2022, 7, 933–938. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. Prado, B.R.; Bartoli, J.R. Synthesis and characterization of PMMA and organic modified montmorillonites nanocomposites via in situ polymerization assisted by sonication. Appl. Clay Sci. 2018, 160, 132–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Pugazhenthi, G.; Suresh, K.R.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, M.; Surin, R.R. A Simple Sonication Assisted Solvent Blending Route for Fabrication of Exfoliated Polystyrene (PS)/Clay Nanocomposites: Role of Various Clay Modifiers. Mater. Today Proc. 2018, 5 Pt 2, 13191–13210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Alangari, A.M.; Al Juhaiman, L.A.; Mekhamer, W.K. Enhanced Coating Protection of C-Steel Using Polystyrene Clay Nanocomposite Impregnated with Inhibitors. Polymers 2023, 15, 372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Hashem, A.; Sheida, E. Organically modified clay as an enhancement filler in novel polyimide mixed matrix membranes for gas separation. Polym. Bull. 2023. early access. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Lysenkov, E.A.; Klepko, V.; Lazarenko, M.M. Structure-Properties Relationships of Nanocomposites Based on Polyethylene Oxide and Anisometric Nanoparticles. Nanomater. Nanocompos. Nanostruct. Surf. Their Appl. 2023, 279, 409–437. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Kracalik, M. Recycled clay/PET nanocomposites evaluated by novel rheological analysis approach. Appl. Clay Sci. 2018, 166, 181–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Chung, T.C. Synthesis of functional polyolefin copolymers with graft and block structures. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2002, 27, 39–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Merinska, D.; Tesarikova, A.; Kalendova, A. Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Ethylene Octene Copolymer/Clay Nanocomposite Films: Different Processing Conditions and Their Effect on Properties. Polym. Eng. Sci. 2019, 59, 514–2521. [Google Scholar]
  148. Cherifi, Z.; Boukoussa, B.; Zaoui, A.; Belbachir, M. Structural, morphological and thermal properties of nanocomposites poly (GMA)/clay prepared by ultrasound and in-situ polymerization. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2018, 48, 188–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  149. Benneghmouche, Z.; Benachour, D. Effect of organophilic clay addition on properties of SAN/EPDM blends. Compos. Interfaces 2019, 26, 711–727. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Xie, W.M.; Chen, H.Y.; He, D.S.; Zhang, Y.; Fu, L.J.; Ouyang, J.; Yang, H.M. An emerging mineral-based composite flame retardant coating: Preparation and enhanced fireproof performance. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2019, 367, 118–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  151. Liu, J.J.; Zhou, K.Q.; Wen, P.Y.; Wang, B.B.; Hu, Y.; Gui, Z. The influence of multiple modified MMT on the thermal and fire behavior of poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites. Polym. Adv. Technol. 2015, 26, 626–634. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  152. Nanda, T.; Sharma, G.; Mehta, R.; Shelly, D.; Singh, K. Mechanisms for enhanced impact strength of epoxy based nanocomposites reinforced with silicate platelets. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 065061. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  153. Stloukal, P.; Kalendova, A.; Mattausch, H.; Laske, S.; Holzer, C.; Koutny, M. The influence of a hydrolysis-inhibiting additive on the degradation and biodegradation of PLA and its nanocomposites. Polym. Test. 2015, 41, 124–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  154. Tabsan, N.; Suchiva, K.; Wirasate, S. Effect of montmorillonite on abrasion resistance of SiO2-filled polybutadiene. Compos. Itnerfaces 2012, 19, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  155. Thomas, S.; George, S.C.; Thomas, S. Rigid Amorphous Phase: Mechanical and Transport Properties of Nitrile Rubber/Clay Nanocomposites. Prog. Rubber Plast. Recycl. Technol. 2017, 33, 103–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  156. Gopi, J.A.; Patel, S.K.; Chandra, A.K.; Tripathy, D.K. SBR-clay-carbon black hybrid nanocomposites for tire tread application. J. Polym. Res. 2011, 18, 1625–1634. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  157. Utracki, L.A. Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites; Rapra Technology: Shawbury, UK, 2004; Volume 1, ISBN 1-85957-485-8. [Google Scholar]
  158. Quesada, D.E.; Villarejo, L.P.; Sánchez-Soto, P. Introductory Chapter. In Ceramic Materials—Synthesis, Characterization, Applications and Recycling; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  159. Saleh, T.A. Chapter 2: Materials: Types and general classifications. In Polymer Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites: Fundamentals and Applications; Applied Science Publishers, William Andrew: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2021; pp. 27–58. [Google Scholar]
  160. Hübner, G. Natural and synthetic raw materials for technical ceramics. Eur. J. Mineral. 1991, 3, 651–665. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  161. Hlaváč, J. Základy Technologie Silikátů; Státní Nakladatelství Technické Literatury: Prag, Czech Republic, 1981; 508p. (In Czech) [Google Scholar]
  162. Aşkin, A.; Tatar, I.; Kilinc, Ş.; Tezel, Ö. The Utilization of Waste Magnesite in the Production of the Cordierite Ceramic. Energy Procedia 2017, 107, 137–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  163. Araujo, E.D.; Silva, K.R.; Freitas Grilo, J.P.F.; Macedo, D.A.; Lima Santana, L.N.; Araújo Neves, G. Dielectric Properties of Steatite Ceramics Produced from Talc and Kaolin Wastes. Mater. Res. 2022, 25, e20210428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Terzić, A.; Andrić, L.; Stojanović, J.; Obradović, N.; Kostović, M. Mechanical Activation as Sintering Pre-treatment of Talc for Steatite Ceramics. Sci. Sinter. 2014, 46, 247–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  165. Kupková, J.; Valášková, M.; Študentová, S. Influence of acid-treated talc and Na2CO3 flux on mineralogical phase composition and porosity in steatite ceramics. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 2017, 14, 803–809. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  166. Soykan, H.S. Low-temperature fabrication of steatite ceramics with boron oxide addition. Ceram. Int. 2007, 33, 911–914. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  167. Vela, E.; Peiteado, M.; García, F.; Caballero, A.C.; Fernández, J.F. Sintering behaviour of steatite materials with barium carbonate flux. Ceram. Int. 2007, 33, 1325–1329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  168. Valášková, M.; Simha Martynková, G.; Zdrálková, J.; Vlček, J.; Matějková, P. Cordierite composites reinforced with zircon arising from zirconium-vermiculite precursor. Mater. Lett. 2012, 80, 158–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  169. Lee, W.E.; Heuer, A.H. On the polymorphism of Enstatite. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1987, 701, 349–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  170. Mielcarek, W.; Nowak-Woźny, D.; Prociów, K. Correlation between MgSiO3 phases and mechanical durability of steatite ceramics. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2004, 24, 3817–3821. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  171. Goeuriot, D.; Dubois, J.C.; Merle, D.; Thevenot, F.; Exbrayat, P. Enstatite Based Ceramics for Machinable Prosthesis Applications. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 1998, 18, 2045–2056. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  172. Makovše, K.; Ramšak, I.; Malič, B.; Bobna, V.; Kuščer, D. Processing of steatite ceramic with a low dielectric constant and low dielectric losses. Inf. MIDEM 2016, 46, 100–105. [Google Scholar]
  173. Tavangarian, F.; Emadi, R. Effects of mechanical activation and chlorine on nanoparticle forsterite formation. Mater. Lett. 2011, 65, 126–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Sara Lee, K.Y.; Christopher Chin, K.M.; Ramesh, S.; Tan, C.Y.; Hassan, M.A.; Purbolaksono, J.; Teng, W.D.; Sopyan, I. Effect of ultrasonication on synthesis of forsterite ceramics. Adv. Mat. Res. 2012, 576, 252–255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  175. Sara Lee, K.Y.; Christopher Chin, K.M.; Ramesh, S.; Purbolaksono, J.; Hassan, M.A.; Hamdi, M.; Teng, W.D. Characterization of forsterite ceramics. J. Ceram. Process. Res. 2013, 14, 131–133. [Google Scholar]
  176. Emadi, R.; Tavangarian, F.; Zamani Foroushani, R.; Gholamrezaie, A. The influences of fluorine and chlorine ions on the formation of nanostructure forsterite during mechanical activation of talc and periclase. Ceram. Process. Res. 2011, 12, 538–543. [Google Scholar]
  177. Ramesh, S.; Yaghoubi, A.; Sara Lee, K.Y.; Christopher Chin, K.M.; Purbolaksono, J.; Hamdi, M.; Hassa, M.A. Nanocrystalline forsterite for biomedical applications: Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2013, 25, 63–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  178. Tavangarian, F.; Emadi, R. Synthesis of pure nanocrystalline magnesium silicate powder. Ceram. Silik. 2010, 54, 122–127. [Google Scholar]
  179. Nguyen, M.; Sokolar, R. The influence of the raw materials mixture on the properties of forsterite ceramics. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018, 385, 012039. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  180. Tavangarian, F.; Emadi, R.; Shafyei, A. Influence of mechanical activation and thermal treatment time on nanoparticle forsterite formation mechanism. Powder Technol. 2010, 198, 412–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  181. Tavangarian, F.; Emadi, R. Nanostructure effects on the bioactivity of forsterite bioceramic. Mater. Lett. 2011, 65, 740–743. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  182. Mustafa, E.; Khalil, N.; Gamal, A. Sintering and microstructure of spinel-forsterite bodies. Ceram. Int. 2002, 28, 663–667. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  183. Sadeghzade, S.; Emadi, R.; Ghomi, H. Mechanical alloying synthesis of forsterite-diopside nanocomposite powder for using in tissue engineering. Ceram. Silik. 2015, 59, 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  184. Gökce, H.; Agaogullari, D.; Lütfi Övecoglu, M.; Duman, I.; Boyraz, T. Characterization of microstructural and thermal properties of steatite/cordierite ceramics prepared by using natural raw materials. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2011, 31, 2741–2747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  185. Goren, R.; Gocmez, H.; Ozgur, C. Synthesis of cordierite powder talc, diatomite and alumina. Ceram. Int. 2006, 32, 407–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  186. Chowdhury, A.; Maitra, S.; Das, S.; Sen, A.; Samanta, G.K.; Datta, P. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Cordierite Ceramics, Part 1. Interceram Int. Ceram. Rev. 2007, 56, 18–22. [Google Scholar]
  187. Valášková, M.; Simha Martynková, G.; Smetana, B.; Študentová, S. Influence of vermiculite on the formation of porous cordierites. Appl. Clay Sci. 2009, 46, 196–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  188. Tamborenea, S.; Mazzoni, A.D.; Aglietti, E.F. Mechanochemical activation of minerals on the cordierite synthesis. Thermochim. Acta 2004, 411, 219–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  189. Gusev, A.A.; Avvakumov, E.G.; Vinokurova, O.B.; Salostii, V.P. The Effect of transition metal oxides on the strength, phase composition and microstructure of cordierite ceramics. Glass Ceram. 2001, 58, 24–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  190. Pavlikov, V.M.; Garmash, E.P.; Yurchenko, V.A.; Pleskach, I.V.; Oleinik, G.S.; Grigorév, O.M. Mechanochemical activation of kaolin, pyrophyllite, and talcum and its effect on the synthesis of cordierite ceramics. Powder Metall. Met. Ceram. 2011, 49, 564–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  191. Valášková, M.; Simha Martynková, G. Microporous Cordierite Ceramics Prepared from Clay Mineral Mixtures Containing Vermiculite. J. Sci. Conf. Proc. 2010, 2, 49–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  192. Valášková, M.; Simha Martynková, G. Preparation and characterization of porous cordierite for potential use in cellular ceramics. Chem. Pap. 2009, 63, 445–449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  193. Kobayashi, Y.; Sumi, K.; Kato, E. Preparation of dense cordierite ceramics from magnesium compounds and kaolinite without additives. Ceram. Int. 2000, 26, 739–743. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  194. Alves, H.M.; Tarí, G.; Fonseca, A.T.; Ferreira, J.M.F. Processing of porous cordierite bodies by starch consolidation. Mater. Res. Bull. 1998, 33, 1439–1448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Almeida, E.P.; Brito, I.P.; Ferreira, H.C.; Lira, H.L.; Santana, L.N.L.; Neves, G.A. Cordierite obtained from compositions containing kaolin waste, talc and magnesium oxide. Ceram. Int. 2018, 44, 1719–1725. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  196. Goren, R.; Ozgur, C.; Gocmez, H. The preparation of cordierite from talc, fly ash, fused silica and alumina mixtures. Ceram. Int. 2006, 32, 53–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  197. Kumar, S.; Singh, K.K.; Ramachandrarao, P. Synthesis of cordierite from fly ash and its refractory properties. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 2000, 19, 1263–1265. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  198. Song, I.H.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, H.D.; Kim, Y.W. Processing of microcellular cordierite ceramics from a preceramic polymer. Scr. Mater. 2006, 54, 1521–1525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  199. Valášková, M.; Zdrálková, J.; Simha Martynková, G.; Smetana, B.; Vlček, J.; Študentová, S. Structural variability of high purity cordierite/steatite ceramics sintered from mixtures with various vermiculites. Ceram. Int. 2014, 40, 8489–8498. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Valášková, M.; Zdrálková, J.; Tokarský, J.; Simha Martynková, G.; Ritz, M.; Študentová, S. Structural characteristic of cordierite/steatite ceramics sintered from mixtures containing pore-forming organovermiculite. Ceram. Int. 2014, 40, 15717–15725. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  201. Acimovic, Z.; Pavlovic, L.; Trumbulovic, L.; Andric, L.; Stamatovic, M. Synthesis and characterization of the cordierite ceramics from nonstandard raw materials for application in foundry. Mater. Lett. 2003, 57, 2651–2656. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  202. Li, Y.; Cao, W.; Feng, J.; Gong, L.; Cheng, X. Fabrication of cordierite foam ceramics using direct foaming and slip casting method with plaster moulds. Adv. Appl. Ceram. 2015, 114, 465–470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  203. Valášková, M.; Mikeska, M.; Študentová, S.; Simha Martynková, G. Cordierite/steatite ceramics sintered from talc, kaolin and vermiculites: Comparison of natural and organovermiculites effect. Mater. Today Proc. 2018, 5, S88–S95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  204. Valášková, M.; Kočí, K.; Kupková, J. Cordierite/steatite/CeO2 porous materials—preparation, structural characterization and their photocatalytic activity. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2015, 207, 120–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  205. Valášková, M.; Hundáková, M.; Smetana, B.; Drozdová, L.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D. Cordierite/CeO2 ceramic nanocomposites from vermiculite with fixed CeO2 nanoparticles, talc and kaolin. Appl. Clay Sci. 2019, 179, 105150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  206. Valášková, M.; Tokarský, J.; Hundáková, M.; Zdrálková, J.; Smetana, B. Role of vermiculite and zirconium-vermiculite on the formation of zircon-cordierite nanocomposites. Appl. Clay Sci. 2013, 75–76, 100–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  207. Cheng, H.; Ye, F.; Chang, J.; Wu, S. In-situ synthesis and thermal shock resistance of a cordierite-mullite composite for solar thermal storage. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec. 2019, 16, 772–780. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  208. Anadaão, P. Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites: Concepts, Researches, Applications and Trends for the Future; IntechOpen Limited: London, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Chemical structure of smectite clay [35].
Figure 1. Chemical structure of smectite clay [35].
Minerals 14 00093 g001
Figure 2. Process of montmorillonite intercalation.
Figure 2. Process of montmorillonite intercalation.
Minerals 14 00093 g002
Figure 3. Alkyl chain arrangement in layered silicates: (a) lateral monolayer, (b) lateral bilayer, (c) paraffin (monolayer), and (d) paraffin type bilayer.
Figure 3. Alkyl chain arrangement in layered silicates: (a) lateral monolayer, (b) lateral bilayer, (c) paraffin (monolayer), and (d) paraffin type bilayer.
Minerals 14 00093 g003
Figure 4. Development of organoclay treated with quaternary salt: ion-exchange intercalation method [49].
Figure 4. Development of organoclay treated with quaternary salt: ion-exchange intercalation method [49].
Minerals 14 00093 g004
Figure 5. Ion-dipole intercalation method.
Figure 5. Ion-dipole intercalation method.
Minerals 14 00093 g005
Figure 9. Types and examples of ceramics according to their chemical composition.
Figure 9. Types and examples of ceramics according to their chemical composition.
Minerals 14 00093 g009
Figure 10. The phase diagram of the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system [162].
Figure 10. The phase diagram of the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system [162].
Minerals 14 00093 g010
Table 1. CO2, air permeability for PLA/Cloisite compositions [113].
Table 1. CO2, air permeability for PLA/Cloisite compositions [113].
CompositionPermeability Q ( C O 2 )
[m2 Pa−1s−1] × 10−16
% Q ( C O 2 ) to Pure PLA
Permeability Q(Air)
[m2 Pa−1s−1] × 10−16
%Q(Air) to Pure PLA
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalendova, A.; Kupkova, J.; Urbaskova, M.; Merinska, D. Applications of Clays in Nanocomposites and Ceramics. Minerals 2024, 14, 93.

AMA Style

Kalendova A, Kupkova J, Urbaskova M, Merinska D. Applications of Clays in Nanocomposites and Ceramics. Minerals. 2024; 14(1):93.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalendova, Alena, Jana Kupkova, Martina Urbaskova, and Dagmar Merinska. 2024. "Applications of Clays in Nanocomposites and Ceramics" Minerals 14, no. 1: 93.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop