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Article

Chemical Dissolution of Chalcopyrite Concentrate in Choline Chloride Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent

1
Escuela de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2162, Valparaíso 2362854, Chile
2
School of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
3
Centre for Sustainable Resource Extraction, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Esteban Quijada-Maldonado and Julio Romero
Minerals 2022, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010065
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 23 December 2021 / Accepted: 29 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy)
Currently, the high demand for copper is in direct contrast with the decrease in the mineral grade and, more significantly, the concerns regarding the environmental impact that arise as a result of processing such low-grade materials. Consequently, new mineral processing concepts are needed. This work explores the chemical dissolution of chalcopyrite concentrate at ambient pressure and moderate temperatures in a deep eutectic solvent. Copper and iron are dissolved without changing their oxidation state, without solvent pH change, and stabilized as a chloride complex with no evidence of passivation. Chemical equilibria of the metallic chloride complexes limit the dissolution, and the step that is rate-controlling of the kinetics is the interdiffusion of species in the solvent. The chemical mechanism may involve initial chloride adsorption at positive sites of the solid surface, pointing out the importance of surfaces states on chalcopyrite particles. A model based on a shrinking particle coupled with pseudo-second-order increase in the liquid concentration of copper describes the dissolution kinetics and demonstrates the importance of the liquid to solid ratio. Iron and copper can be recovered separately from the solvent, which highlights that this concept is an interesting alternative to both redox-hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy to obtain copper by the processing of chalcopyrite concentrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper metallurgy; chalcopyrite; deep eutectic solvent; choline chloride ethylene glycol; non-redox leaching; dissolution kinetics; copper chloro-complex copper metallurgy; chalcopyrite; deep eutectic solvent; choline chloride ethylene glycol; non-redox leaching; dissolution kinetics; copper chloro-complex
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carlesi, C.; Harris, R.C.; Abbott, A.P.; Jenkin, G.R.T. Chemical Dissolution of Chalcopyrite Concentrate in Choline Chloride Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent. Minerals 2022, 12, 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010065

AMA Style

Carlesi C, Harris RC, Abbott AP, Jenkin GRT. Chemical Dissolution of Chalcopyrite Concentrate in Choline Chloride Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent. Minerals. 2022; 12(1):65. https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carlesi, Carlos, Robert C. Harris, Andrew P. Abbott, and Gawen R.T. Jenkin. 2022. "Chemical Dissolution of Chalcopyrite Concentrate in Choline Chloride Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent" Minerals 12, no. 1: 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/min12010065

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